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Accueil du site → Doctorat → États-Unis → 1995 → Economic analyses of wind erosion control with off-site environmental effects

University of Kentucky (1995)

Economic analyses of wind erosion control with off-site environmental effects

Hu, Dayuan

Titre : Economic analyses of wind erosion control with off-site environmental effects

Auteur : Hu, Dayuan

Université de soutenance : University of Kentucky

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 1995

Wind erosion accelerated by human activities causes severe problems in many arid and semiarid areas around the would. It is the principal factor responsible for desertification, an issue of current global concern. Wind erosion has both on-site and off-site consequences. On-farm, soil nutrients are lost when soil particles are blown downwind, reducing future crop production in cropland and forage-grass production in rangeland. Downwind, windblown dust reduces visibility, soils clothing and buildings. However, very little information about economic impacts of wind erosion is available. This dissertation investigates government policies and regulations for wind erosion control in the inner Mongolia Plateau, China, with both on-site and off-site effects considered. This involved 1) estimation of off-site benefits from a reduction in windblown-dust pollution, 2) cost-benefit analysis of wind erosion control in cropland, and 3) optimal management of livestock grazing in rangeland. Measurement of off-site effects is difficult, especially in a mixed economy such as China’s. In this dissertation, a conservative estimate of downwind effects was obtained by benefit transfer. A benefit estimate from a U.S. study was adjusted according to differences in relevant factors across the two countries. Three factors were found to be important in benefit transfer : comparable income, income elasticity of willingness to pay, and inclusion of relevant demographics as value shifters. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted to evaluate three policy options for wind erosion control in cropland. To value the benefits of each option, the reduction in wind erosion that would occur with each option was estimated using a wind erosion equation. The off-site effects were found to be as important as on-site effects, and large enough to change the ranking of the three policy options considered. A bioeconomic optimal control model was developed to represent the dynamic interactions among livestock grazing, wind erosion and grass growth, and to determine optimal livestock densities in public rangeland. Incorporating on-site intertemporal effects, the optimal control solution provides a conservation plan that reduces wind erosion from rangelands. Inclusion of the off-site effect provides further incentives to achieve ecological sustainability

Mots clés : Public administration, Environmental science, desertification, Health and environmental sciences, Agricultural economics, Social sciences China

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