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UKAID Department for International Development (R4D) 1998

Kano-Maradi Study of Long Term Change (Niger, Nigeria)

Change Niger Nigeria

UKAID Department for International Development (R4D)

Titre : Kano-Maradi Study of Long Term Change (Niger, Nigeria)

Pays : Niger, Nigeria

Projet de recherche pour le Développement : R7221

DFID Programme : Miscellaneous (Social and Political Change)

Organismes de mise en œuvre
Joint Financiers : Leventis Foundation
Lead Institutes : Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
Managing Institutes : Social Science Research Unit, Department for International Development (SSRU)

Durée : 01-08-1998 à 01-04-2001

Objectif
To make a contribution to the formulation of appropriate policies in dryland environments, to enable small farmers and livestock breeders to manage their natural resources on a sustainable basis, by a new study of long term change in the Maradi area of Niger, as a part of the hinterland of Metropolitan Kano in Nigeria, which compares policy impact on either side of the border. To test hypotheses linking population density, markets and environmental management ,developed in a study of Machakos District (Kenya), in the West African Sahel, in conjunction with parallel studies in Makueni District, Kenya, and Senegal.

Descriptif
The study addresses a need for a better policy framework to support sustainable natural resource management in drylands (climatically arid or semi-arid). This objective has been given prominence in the ICCD (International Convention to Combat Desertification) which calls on countries to prepare National Action Plans.
The study is being proposed at a point in time when top-down, interventionist strategies of environmental management are delicately balanced in policy debate against participatory, bottom-up approaches. The first rely on introduced technologies to curb degradation, and the second stress the value of indigenous technology. The first are heavily dependent on external financial resources (as the failure of the UN’s 1977 Plan of Action to Combat Desertification showed), while the second try to mobilise indigenous resources.
However, this study focusses on enabling rather than directive or interventionist policies. Enabling policies help to mobilise indigenous resources of labour, technology and capital, and encourage long term planning, at the household level. _According to the situations found in different countries and regions, relevant policy areas may include : administrative decentralisation ; land (and the resource) tenure ; infrastructure provision ; prices and marketing ; migration and urbanisation ; education, research and extension ; credit and banking ; and project interventions (such as integrated rural development, irrigation, or forestry). The practice issues that may be affected by this focus concern the implementation of enabling policies, in the light of what can be learned of the responses, over time, of farmers, pastoralists, migrants and traders. Land and water management at the micro-scale, uptake of new technologies, changes in land use, fertility maintenance, crop-livestock integration, extension methods, market regulation and local level democratic institutions are some of the many practical areas where an improved understanding of the impact of policy must be beneficial. Previous work shows that under certain conditions, a transition to sustainable natural resource management, a result of smallholder investments, and accompanied by improved household incomes, can be accomplished even in African drylands. In assessing the transferability of the ’Machakos hypothesis’ to a Sahelian setting, the Kano region is critically important. The Kano Close-Settled Zone supports a large rural population at very high and increasing densities, and the farming system has been shown (in recently completed research funded by DFID through Cambridge University and Bayero University, Kano) to be broadly sustainable.
Therefore, a major question hangs over less densely populated parts of the region as to how far they may be able to proceed along the same path. The Maradi region is somewhat drier, has lower (but rapidly rising) rural population densities, and is representative of other parts of the Sahel. At the same time, it is strongly influenced by the markets of metropolitan Kano, and its migratory system depends on poles of attraction in Nigeria. As a middle ranking urban sub-hinterland, it stands comparison with other parts of the Kano hinterland within Nigeria. This provides an opportunity to compare the long term effects of contrary policies under the two colonial and later independent governments.
The study will form a quartet with parallel studies of Senegal (the ’peanut basin’) and Kenya (Makueni District). (The last is included in order to link the Sahelian studies with an update of the Machakos study in Kenya, which will take account of developments during the 1990s, and focus on a dry, low potential area.) The eventual beneficiaries of an improved understanding of long term change in drylands will be their inhabitants, provided that research findings can have some influence on policy. The immediate beneficiaries

Total Cost to DFID : £204,631

Présentation : UKAID

Page publiée le 23 octobre 2015, mise à jour le 27 octobre 2017