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University of Tennessee - Knoxville (2015)

Comparison of Seed Yield, Oil and Phenotypic Traits Among Selected Parents and Crosses of Niger

Benelli Victoria Grace

Titre : Comparison of Seed Yield, Oil and Phenotypic Traits Among Selected Parents and Crosses of Niger

Auteur : Benelli Victoria Grace

Université de soutenance : University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2015

Résumé
Niger (Guizotia abyssinica (L.f) Cass.) is primarily marketed as favorite seed among American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) as well as pine siskin, redpoll, house finches, and ground feeding birds like quail and dove. As a part of a balanced diet, it is crucial for these species to consume a higher percentage of fats than other bird species. Fourteen niger accessions of Indian, Ethiopian, and American origin were obtained from USDA/ ARS germplasm collection at Pullman, WA and planted in August 2012 at the East Tennessee Research & Education Center. Five of these accessions were crossed to form different populations that were evaluated for genetic variation and heritability of seed yield, oil and agronomic traits to determine the feasibility of future breeding efforts in increasing total plant yield and oil content. A randomized complete block design with replication was used for this experiment. Each of four blocks consisted of 5 parent accessions (3 replications per block), 6 F1’s [filial 1] (5 replications per block), 6 F2’s [filial 2] (25 replications per block), and 8 backcrosses (5 replications per block). Two years of data were collected at the Research and Education Centers at Knoxville (2013 and 2014), Springfield (2013 and 2014), and Crossville (2014), TN (Appendix A). Traits, including seed yield, seed plant-1 [per plant], branches plant-1, capitula plant-1, average seed capitulum-1 [per capitulum], maturity, plant height, days to full bloom, seed oil, and fatty acid content were recorded. Parent accessions, F1’s, F2’s, and backcrosses were analyzed separately with ANOVA using SAS 9.3 (Cary, NC) statistical software to determine genetic variance and broad sense heritability estimates, and gene effects. In addition, the aforementioned traits were analyzed for correlations of seed yield with yield component traits as well as seed oil using SAS 9.3. Mean analyses resulted in significant differences among the 14 plant introductions as well as selected parents and F1 progeny. Evidence of high-parent heterosis and dominance gene effects suggest that hybrid breeding programs may be most appropriate. Creating inbred lines may prove to be difficult, however, due to the high degree of self-incompatibility.

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