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UKAID Department for International Development (R4D) 2001

Progressive policies ? Policy and institutional frameworks for Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in Namibia’s dynamic dryland environments

Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Dryland Namibia

UKAID Department for International Development (R4D)

Titre : Progressive policies ? Policy and institutional frameworks for Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in Namibia’s dynamic dryland environments

Pays : Namibie

Projet de recherche pour le Développement : R8055CA

DFID Programme : Miscellaneous (Sustainable Agriculture)

Organismes de mise en œuvre
Lead Institutes : Sheffield Centre for International Drylands Research, Department of Geography, University of Sheffield ; University of Sheffield
Managing Institutes : Rural Livelihoods Department, Department for International Development (UK) (RLD)
Collaborating Institutes : Department of Sociology, University of Botswana ; University of Namibia

Durée : Start Date : 01-11-2001 End Date : 30-06-2003

Objectif  : To investigate the different policy and institutional frameworks for community-based natural resource management in a variety of social and environmental settings within Northern and Southern Namibia.

Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) approaches have been heralded as a new paradigm in conservation in Africa, where they are revered as an attempt to break away from the colonially-introduced models, which exclude local people from conservation initiatives. CBNRM programmes are based on the premise that local populations have a greater interest in the sustainable use of natural resources around them than do more centralised government or private management institutions. Local communities have a deeper understanding of their local environment than outsiders, and CBNRM credits them with the ability to manage natural resources effectively through local or ,traditional, practices or in partnership with other institutions. There is now increasing recognition (from governments, donors, NGOs, academics and local communities) that effective resource management must be linked with issues of equitable access to natural resources, the promotion of sustainable livelihoods, and the alleviation of poverty. However, the opportunity to critically examine CBNRM initiatives, afforded at the end of their first decade or more of implementation, reveals that such programmes may not always be achieving these aims. There are growing concerns about whether CBNRM is truly democratic ; whether it provides an effective tool for environmental management and appropriate local-level development ; what possibilities it offers to those whose interests are antithetical to the goals of social justice and environmental sustainability for the appropriation of specific projects and natural resources ; and finally the consequences when generalised models of CBNRM are inserted into specific contexts without attention to history, power relationships and social differentiation, the politics of implementation or the environment. Recent legislation in Namibia (1966) has encouraged communities to diversify land use and livelihoods through the management and utilisation of wildlife. This has been accomplished by developing communal area conservancies. Communities in the conservancies are being supported by NGOs and government to develop their NR-based livelihoods within the context of the National CBNRM Programme. Namibia’s programme and policy have been internationally recognised as the most progressive initative of its kind in southern Africa, becoming the first country to be honoured for a people-centred environmental initiative with the WWF Gift to the Earth Award in September 1998. To date the focus of CBNRM has also been on productive wildlife utilisation (principally through tourist initiatives, both consumptive and non-consumptive) rather than development of other NR-based activities. However, it is now recognised that a central feature of the CBNRM approach is that it has the potential to strengthen community rights to manage and benefit from natural resources. For both the north and south of Namibia, little is known about the opportunities for non-wildlife and non-tourism dependent conservancies. This highlights the need for research into the potential options for, and alternatives to existing CBNRM implementation in Namibia’s dynamic dryland environments. In particular, identifying the ways that the existing conservancy approach to CBNRM can be adapted to suit different contexts, and further, identifying existing alternative (non-conservancy) approaches to CBNRM that could provide important lessons to inform policy that better supports livelihood security and diversification in Namibia and the southern African region. By placing the research findings in a regional context it is possible to exchange experiences and insight into best practice with other relevant institutions, thus adding value to the research and its reach. This research will provide a unique contribution to the emerging body of research on CBNRM in general, and for CBNRM in Namibia and southern Africa in particular

Total Cost to DFID : £78,730

Présentation : UKAID

Page publiée le 30 novembre 2015, mise à jour le 29 octobre 2017