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United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2009

DESERT SOILS : ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN IMPACTS

Classification Desert Soils

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Research, Education & Economics Information System (REEIS)

Titre : DESERT SOILS : ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND HUMAN IMPACTS

Identification : NM-MONGER-08H

Pays : Etats Unis

Durée : Apr 1, 2009 à Sep 30, 2013

Domaine : Weather and Climate ; Soil, Plant, Water, Nutrient Relationships ; Appraisal of Soil Resources ; Management of Range Resources ; Rangelands and grasslands, general ;

Partenaire : NEW MEXICO STATE UNIVERSITY 1620 STANDLEY DR ACADEMIC RESH A RM 110 LAS CRUCES,NM 88003-1239

Objectifs
The objectives of this project are : 1) Ecosystem Service #1 : Carbon Sequestration. To quantify fluxes and understand mechanisms of carbon accumulation in desert soils. 2) Ecosystem Service #2 : Resistance to Desertification. To identify soil-geomorphic units most resistant to woody shrub invasion and understand the extent and chronology of natural cycles of desertification. 3) Human Impacts. To incorporate broad-scale human activities into desert soil-geomorphic-ecology models.

Descriptif
We are developing a classification system based on where and when carbonate precipitates, and the source of Ca2+. The major categories of this system are in situ or ex situ pedogenic, primary (i.e., geogenic), calcitic-pedogenic, and silicatic-pedogenic carbonate. This classification system describes soil carbonate sequestration of atmospheric CO2 as a series of three generations. Such distinctions are needed to understand the biogeochemical conditions necessary for carbonate-C sequestration and for ’geoengineering’ projects designed to sequester carbon in dryland soils. To quantify vegetation-soil-geomorphic relationships, a landform map of the entire Chihuahuan Desert is being made by Curtis Monger and Barbara Nolen as part of the Jornada Basin LTER program. The Chihuahuan Desert landforms will be digitized as GIS layers and overlain will vegetation maps. Landforms are three-dimensional parts of the general land surface and have distinctive and recognizable boundaries. Their sizes vary, but they are commonly delineable on a map scale of 1:24000, which is the common scale for most soil surveys. Roads, therefore, can be considered to be landforms, albeit anthropogenic landforms. Some roads, especially interstate highways, are detectable from space, as on the Apollo 6 photographs of southern New Mexico, and are not just landforms, but major landforms extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans. The purpose of this work will be to explore and quantify roads as landforms and to address how they fit into a broad-scale ecological and hydrological picture of human land use. Although bioturbation by invertebrates and rodents is widely recognized as an important factor of soil formation, bioturbation by humans, which is most profoundly noticeable at broad scales, is less commonly discussed by soil scientists. To answer the above questions, this research will quantify the extent of human bioturbation in the Chihuahuan Desert. In addition, special focus on matter transformations will be undertaken with the aim of understanding how synthetic products, like plastic, withstand pedogenesis in desert versus forest soils

Présentation : USDA

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