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United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2006

SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND MINERALOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATED WITH CERCOCARPUS LEDIFOLIUS STANDS ON MT. CHARLESTON, NEVADA

Cercocarpus Ledifolius Soil

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Research, Education & Economics Information System (REEIS)

Titre : SOIL PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND MINERALOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATED WITH CERCOCARPUS LEDIFOLIUS STANDS ON MT. CHARLESTON, NEVADA

Identification : NYR-2007-02080

Pays : Etats Unis

Durée : Aug 15, 2006 à Dec 31, 2008

Domaine : Soil, Plant, Water, Nutrient Relationships ; Appraisal of Soil Resources ;

Partenaire : HARTWICK COLLEGE ONE HARTWICK DRIVE ONEONTA,NY 13820

Objectifs
Estimating the rate of soil formation is one of the greatest challenges in soil science. It is also of great importance to many science fields that use soil data (e.g., hydrological modeling, climate change research, landscape stability, and earthquake risk). Although it is generally understood that plants can affect soil development, specific information on soil formation is especially lacking in arid ecosystems under the influence of long-lived plant species such as curlleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolius, Rosaceae). Due to the long life of this species, C. ledifolius can provide valuable information on soil development over time. Our research focuses on C. ledifolius woodlands in southern Nevada. Preliminary data suggest that soils on sites with C. ledifolius have significant soil development. This is especially important because C. ledifolius sites are often on dry, rocky, low-productivity slopes that usually do not support significant tree growth. Their presence is important for erosion control. The goals of our long-term research are to quantify soil development and soil-tree dynamics in these woodlands. Because C. ledifolius may attain ages in excess of 1,000 years and may reestablish in the same positions on the landscape, the potential for quantifying soil development and deriving rates of several soil formation processes is great. The long-term goal of this project is to assess in detail soil development, and associated rates of soil development, in and around C. ledifolius stands in order to develop the initial monitoring data for a 30+ year experiment on soil formation rates. This proposal directly addresses the NRI and USDA Strategic Planning goals 1, 2, and 5 and indirectly supports goals 3 and 4.

Descriptif
Changes in soil physical and chemical parameters will be compared across 4 microhabitats by horizon using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and profile development indices (Harden and Taylor, 1983 ; Levine and Ciolkosz, 1983). Ratios of soil physical and chemical parameters across the 3 C. ledifolius treatments will be derived using the open space microhabitat as the null in order to examine progressive soil development with microhabitat. XRD data will be compared qualitatively across horizons and within profiles to determine weathering sequences. Indices of P adsorption will be derived based on CD and AAO Fe contents and Olsen extractable P results. Thin section and SEM/EDS analysis will be used to assess pedogenic development. In addition, we will determine what nutrients, minerals, and physical properties may be important for C. ledifolius growth. To quantify rates of weathering, which we will use as a surrogate for plant uptake by CMM, we will derive mass balance estimates using the soil physical and chemical data in addition to total elemental data from tree root, shoot, and leaf samples. Ratios of rock fragment chemistries as compared to soil chemistries will be made across treatments to determine weathering differences associated with C. ledifolius age/size. Particle size ratios (silt:clay) will be calculated to determine weathering rates of primary to secondary minerals, and ratios will be compared in a regression analysis to soil and foliar chemistries. To determine the preferred ion uptake by C. ledifolius, regression analysis will be conducted of foliar chemistries and soil chemistries by horizon and by a weighted average of the upper 50 cm soil depth. Soil development indices will be compared across treatments and these indices used to quantify soil formation by comparing the color changes in soils, changes in structure, differences in particle sizes and mineralology by horizon and between pits. XRD results will be compared across treatments in an attempt to derive a mineral weathering sequence related to C. ledifolius -associated soil development. Organic matter contributions will be assessed in an analysis of variance across treatments by horizon. In addition, comparisons will be made of organic vs. inorganic vs. total carbon accumulation in each respective treatment.

Présentation : USDA

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