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United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2009

CHARACTERIZATION AND USE OF BIO-CHAR AS A SOIL AMENDMENT, AND FERTILITY IMPLICATIONS FOR SEMI-ARID SOILS

Biochar Soil Amendement

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Research, Education & Economics Information System (REEIS)

Titre : CHARACTERIZATION AND USE OF BIO-CHAR AS A SOIL AMENDMENT, AND FERTILITY IMPLICATIONS FOR SEMI-ARID SOILS

Identification : ARZT-1365570-H21-159

Pays : Etats Unis

Durée : Jul 1, 2009 à Sep 30, 2014

Mots clés : bio-char ; carbon nutrient ; fertility soil ; amendment ; semi-arid

Partenaire : UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA 888 N EUCLID AVE TUCSON,AZ 85719-4824

Objectifs
This research will focus on the following objectives : 1) Help develop bio-char materials by working closely with the University of Arizona Bio-Fuel and Bio-char Research Group (see cooperation section) to produce cost-effective bio-chars, beneficial as soil amendments for Arizona semi-arid soils. 2) Characterize new bio-char products as they are produced by the UA Bio-fuel and Bio-char Research group using laboratory standards chemical characterization methods, including bio-char sorption capacities, and batch equilibrium studies. 3) Characterize the nutrient sorption and release properties of bio-char products, produced by the University of Arizona bio-char research group, using laboratory soil-bio-char column studies. 4) Use greenhouse studies to determine nutrient storage, leaching, and plant nutrient uptake of Arizona vegetable crops grown in bio-char-amended Arizona soils

Descriptif
The success of this research is tied to other activities of the University of Arizona Bio-fuel and Bio-char Research Group. However, commercially available bio-char materials may be used initially (example, mesquite bio-char) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies. Nonetheless, the principal goal of the group is to generate and test bio-fuels AND bio-chars, derived from locally (Arizona) produced organic residues and wastes from agriculture and forestry. This will be accomplished with a pilot scale pyrolysis unit being installed at the University of Arizona Red Rock Agricultural Research Center. The bio-chars will be tested for their general and specific macro and micro-nutrients sorption/release characteristics under laboratory batch conditions. Selected bio-chars will also be tested in the laboratory for total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur and total ash content. The mineral composition of these materials will also be determined. All nutrient sorption/release studies will have controls to establish the contributions (if any) that these materials can add (nutrients, salinity, alkalinity) to the soil/water environment. All characterizations will be done on representative samples of bio-char newly produced materials obtained from composited sub-samples (n>6) and analyzed in triplicate. Selected bio-char materials, based on the results of step 2, will be tested under simulated field conditions, to determine the specific macro and micro nutrients sorption/release properties, using columns packed with soil-bio-char mixtures. The column eluents will be analyzed to quantify the sorption/desorption properties of these mixes under dynamic (flow) conditions. See step 2 for the list of ions that will be monitored in the eluting soil pore volume fractions. The best-performing bio-chars, based on the results of steps 2 and 3, will be tested in greenhouse conditions to evaluate nutrient leaching losses and plant nutrient status during a plant growth cycle. This will be done using pots with soil-bio-char mixtures (to be determined) seeded with plants (crops) grown in Arizona (alfalfa, lettuce, sorghum, cotton). A completely randomized block design will be used with multiple replicates (n>4). Volumes and major chemical characteristics (pH, salinity) of the pot leachates will be measured after each irrigation. Samples of these leachates will be preserved and analyzed for nutrients at the end of the plant growth cycle. Rural Arizona farmers could benefit from this bio-char energy production approach by : reducing their dependency on fossil fuels, recycling agriculture wastes, storing carbon credits in the soil, saving irrigation water and fertilizer costs, and increasing plant yields and biomass production. The benefits to the public in general include, nationally lowering our dependency on imported liquid fossils for energy production, increasing carbon storage, rather than releasing it into the atmosphere, reducing the rate of global warming, saving valuable local water resources, and increasing food production locally, thereby reducing food costs and imports

Présentation : USDA

Page publiée le 2 décembre 2015, mise à jour le 7 novembre 2017