Informations et ressources scientifiques
sur le développement des zones arides et semi-arides

Accueil du site → Projets de développement → Projets de recherche pour le Développement → 2012 → BIODIVERSITY, SYSTEMATICS AND NATURAL HISTORY OF NOCTURNAL WASPS IN THE NORTH AMERICAN DESERTS

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2012

BIODIVERSITY, SYSTEMATICS AND NATURAL HISTORY OF NOCTURNAL WASPS IN THE NORTH AMERICAN DESERTS

Nocturnal Wasps Desert

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Research, Education & Economics Information System (REEIS)

Titre : BIODIVERSITY, SYSTEMATICS AND NATURAL HISTORY OF NOCTURNAL WASPS IN THE NORTH AMERICAN DESERTS

Titre : BIODIVERSITY, SYSTEMATICS AND NATURAL HISTORY OF NOCTURNAL WASPS IN THE NORTH AMERICAN DESERTS

Identification : UTA01078

Pays : Etats Unis

Durée : Jul 1, 2012 à Jun 30, 2017

Domaine : biogeography ; mutillidae ; chyphotes ; bradynobaenidae ; brachycistis ; brachycistidinae ; tiphiidae

Partenaire : UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY LOGAN,UT 84322

Objectifs
The purpose of this project is to a conduct molecular study to associate sexes and derived both morphological and molecular data to perform phylogenetic and biogeographical analyses of the nocturnal wasps (Hymenoptera : Chyphotidae, Mutillidae and Brachycistidinae) throughout the southwestern United States. The samples will be used to infer relationships among species, describe new species and associate sexes, and to determine basic information regarding the natural history of these wasps. Specific objectives include:1. Collect fresh specimens of nocturnal wasps to give baseline data on diversity, and abundance, and to obtain specimens for generating molecular, taxonomic and natural history data. 2. Extract DNA from samples, amplify and sequence the mitochondrial gene (cytochrome c oxidase I [COI], nuclear genes (wingless [Wg]) and two nuclear intergenic regions (internal transcribed spacer regions 1&2 [ITS1&2]) from all nocturnal species and outgroups. 3. Associate the sexes using molecular data describing any previously unknown sexes or new species. 4. Perform a phylogenetic analysis using molecular data and use the recovered evolutionary relationships for subsequent biogeographical analysis of the desert regions determining the timing of speciation events and establishing corresponding geological events. 5. Continue Mark-Recapture and cage studies in southern Utah expanding it to include Chyphotidae and Brachycistidinae. 6. Determine hosts for nocturnal wasp species by locating would-be hosts’ nests, collecting hosts and rearing host cocoons and pupae that may harbor nocturnal wasps. Phylogenetics hypotheses and taxonomic revisions of the nocturnal wasps are expected outputs, as well as biogeographical analyses.

Descriptif
First, nocturnal wasp diversity and abundance will continue to be determined by systematically collecting these wasps in all the North American desert regions. These fresh specimens will then be used to derive molecular data from the nuclear, noncoding internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 & ITS2) of the ribosomal cistron, and the mitochondrial, coding cytochrome C oxidase subunits I and II (COI & COII). This data will be used to associate the sexes of conspecifics. This is important because females are normally collected in the vicinity of their hosts, but are relatively uncommon in collections due to inadequate sampling methods carried out in the past. These associations will link host identity to parasite abundance (male number), and will give indication of the impact of these parasitoids on pollinator populations. Morphological data, in turn, will be derived from the morphology of the associated females. Morphological and molecular data derived from both sexes will be combined to perform a cladistic biogeographical analysis to determine how historical vicariant events, dispersal, and extinction shaped the distribution of these velvet ants in North American desert regions. Estimates of divergence dates also will be calculated for each node within the phylogenies.

Présentation : USDA

Page publiée le 14 novembre 2015, mise à jour le 15 novembre 2017