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Accueil du site → Projets de développement → Projets de recherche pour le Développement → 2009 → SOIL CARBON, COMMUNITIES AND QUALITY IN MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR WIND-EROSION CONTROL

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2009

SOIL CARBON, COMMUNITIES AND QUALITY IN MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR WIND-EROSION CONTROL

Carbon Wind Erosion Control

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Research, Education & Economics Information System (REEIS)

Titre : SOIL CARBON, COMMUNITIES AND QUALITY IN MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR WIND-EROSION CONTROL

Identification : WNP00353

Pays : Etats Unis

Durée : Jul 1, 2009 à Jun 30, 2012

Mots clés : wind ; erosion ; biota ; soil quality ; carbon ; microbial community ; management ; dryland ; sediments ; particulates ; residue ; organic matter

Partenaire : WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY 240 FRENCH ADMINISTRATION BLDG PULLMAN,WA 99164-0001

Objectifs
Our goal is to use the soil biota to aid in determining the effectiveness of agricultural management decisions and in identification of the source of material displaced by wind and water. Our overall objective is to determine the effect of wind erosion and management practices on soil organic matter, soil biological communities and soil quality characteristics. The first objective of this research is to characterize biological, physical and chemical soil quality parameters and monitor their changes over time in tillage systems of dryland farming systems. Our second objective is to quantify the carbon content and biological fingerprints found in wind-eroded sediments from agricultural soils. Our third objective is to characterize cereal cultivars by their fiber, tannin and nutrient components and determine how residue decomposition is linked to these characteristics. Information is needed on the changes in soil organic matter and the soil biota due to wind erosion to aid in the development of management practices. This information will provide growers and scientists with practical advice on soil quality to aid in the development of management practices that enhance soil quality and improve productivity.

Descriptif
Objective 1. Research will be conducted in conjunction with the ongoing wind erosion projects at various locations, such as the undercutting projects ; the Jirava no-till seeding study near Ritzville, WA ; and the canola-winter wheat study at Lind, WA. Soil samples will be collected annually to characterize soil quality and microbial communities. Soils will be incrementally sampled from the 0 to 20 cm depth in early spring and mid-summer to monitor soil quality changes over time. Soil quality and crop production data will be used to assess the influence of management practices on these parameters. The soil properties to be analyzed include bulk density ; soil pH ; electrical conductivity ; organic C and N ; and aggregate size distribution. A study of the microorganisms in the selected plots involves soil biomass, respiration and dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Soil from each of the cropping systems will be analyzed using phospholipid fatty acid and fatty acid methyl ester analyses to determine microbial community structure and effects of stress on the system. Objective 2. The soil lipid content is indicative of diverse biological communities, plant and root litter origins, and humic structures ; therefore, biological analyses of a particular soil can be used to identify and distinguish soils in a manner separate from, yet often dependent upon, the mineral portion. We have been investigating the carbon content and biological fingerprint of fractions of agricultural soil collected in wind sample collectors. We propose to determine the amount of organic C lost to wind erosion and the impact of type of wind event, location and management on this loss. Also, we will use biological fingerprinting to determine the microsite or microaggregate origin of particles that are more erodible than others. We will utilize particulate matter collected in air samplers adjacent to conventionally and conservation-tilled agricultural fields, as well as characterize bulk soil and aggregates. Samples will be from various wind events at several different locations have been collected in increments to 1.5 m. The soil properties to be analyzed include total and organic C and N ; and fatty acid methyl ester analyses to determine soil biological community structure. Objective 3. We will characterize cereal cultivars by their fiber, tannin and nutrient components using wet chemistry and near infrared technology and determine how residue decomposition is linked to the above soil characteristics. Data will be analyzed by one-way ANOVA analysis using Fisher’s protected least significant difference or a multiple ANOVA (MANOVA, SAS, 1999). We will determine those characteristics that separate the samples from one another and from the bulk soil. We will also calculate the amount of carbon lost from fields and determine the changes in the soil community markers of the suspended particulate material.

Présentation : USDA

Page publiée le 10 octobre 2015, mise à jour le 7 novembre 2017