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Université de Cordoba (2013)

Determinación de la eficiencia en el uso del nitrógeno en variedades de olivo y su interacción con el tipo de suelo

Rico Lavadoo Sergio Almeida

Titre : Determinación de la eficiencia en el uso del nitrógeno en variedades de olivo y su interacción con el tipo de suelo

Auteur : Rico Lavadoo Sergio Almeida

Université de soutenance : Université de Cordoba

Le programme du Master est organisé conjointement par Universidad de Córdoba (UCO), Consejería de Agricultura, Pesca y Medio Ambiente de la Junta de Andalucía (CAP), Instituto Andaluz de Investigación y Formación Agraria, Pesquera, Alimentaria y de la Producción Ecológica (IFAPA), Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes (CIHEAM) à travers l’Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Zaragoza (IAMZ), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) et Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA)

Résumé
The objective of the present research was two-fold : 1) to establish possible differences in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of different olive tree varieties and 2) to study their possible interaction with soil type. These objectives can contribute to increase the efficiency of nitrogen fertilization and hence to the reduction of the environmental pollution with nitrates. A first study was developed to evaluate exclusively varietal differences. For this purpose, two experiments were set up with a completely randomized block design, a variable number of repetitions and two levels of nitrogen (0 and 100 ppm). The first experiment was implemented under shadehouse conditions and 9 varieties were used. The second experiment was conducted in a growth chamber with controlled environment and 7 varieties were tested. A second study was further set up to analyze the interaction between the varieties and soil type. For this purpose, two additional experiments were implemented, both with a factorial design and two levels of nitrogen (0 and 100 ppm). The factors considered were variety (‘Picual’, ‘Arbequina’, ‘Frantoio’ and ‘Sikitita’) and soil type (Fluvisol, Luvisol and Regosol). A soil composed of a mixture of peat and sand was used as a control. One of the experiments was conducted under shadehouse conditions with seven repetitions per treatment, while the other one was conducted in a growth chamber with controlled conditions with six repetitions per treatment. In the four experiments, pots in which no nitrogen was applied were used as control for each treatment and for the further calculation of the NUE. All other pots were weekly fertilized with urea applied in combination with irrigation. The results show the existence of varietal differences in the absorption and utilization efficiency, without both indicators being neither related with each other nor with the vegetative growth. ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Koroneiki’ were the varieties for which greater NUE were found, contrasting with ‘Cobrançosa’, ‘Empeltre’, ‘Cornicabra’, ‘Picholine marocaine’ and ‘Lechín de Granada’ which exhibit the lowest NUE. Interactions between soil type and variety in vegetative growth, nitrogen concentration and content and in the NUE were also reported. Finally, the variety ‘Picual’ was affected when cultivated in a soil with a low pH and ‘Arbequina’ when cultivated in a calcareous soil.

Grade : Master Universitaire en Oliviculture et Oléotechnie 2013

Résumé en Espagnol – Anglais

Master of Oliviculture et Oleotechnie

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Page publiée le 11 novembre 2015, mise à jour le 10 juillet 2018