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Universidad de Murcia (2015)

Efecto de las acciones antrópicas sobre la estabilidad de agregados del suelo en zonas semiáridas

Campoy Cervellera, Manuel Jesús

Titre : Efecto de las acciones antrópicas sobre la estabilidad de agregados del suelo en zonas semiáridas

Auteur : Campoy Cervellera, Manuel Jesús

Université de soutenance : Universidad de Murcia

Grade : Tesis Doctoral 2015

Résumé
In semiarid areas such as the Southeastern Spanish, the progressive degradation suffered by soils affects vegetation that supports them. Regenerating degraded soil physical properties is required to promote the establishment of vegetation, thus slowing erosion and leaching of contaminants. The aim of this thesis was to investigate and quantify the effect of various human actions (revegetation practices with bushy using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and land application of organic presenting amendments and agricultural management practices) on the structure and soil quality. For this purpose four trials were carried out, two in and two controlled conditions in field conditions. In the first experiment under controlled conditions the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (MA) (Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith) or with a mixture of three AMF (G. intraradices, G. deserticola (Trappe, Bloss were studied. and Menge) and G. mosseae (Nicol and Gerd) Gerd and Trappe, and the addition of two residues.. composted sewage sludge and residue treated with dry alperujo Aspergillus niger (DOC) on the stabilization of aggregates . the rhizosphere of Juniperus oxycedrus, and the influence of structural improvements made on the establishment of plants the following results were obtained : Both the addition of organic amendments such as mycorrhizal inoculation treatments significantly increased aboveground biomass was mycorrhizal inoculation. The most effective treatment was the increase of the biomass of plants, no significant differences between the two treatments mycorrhization. The inoculation with the mixture of three AMF and the combination of G. intraradices with both organic amendments significantly improved structural stability soil. Values of carbon and soluble carbohydrates, increased only by adding composted sewage sludge or residue fermented DOC. In the second test the effect of soil drying-rewet was studied inoculation with a mixture of three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi allochthonous (MA) (Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, Glomus deserticola Trappe, Bloss. & Menge and Glomus mosseae (Nicol & Gerd) Gerd. and Trappe) and adding a composting organic waste, on the stabilization of the aggregates in the rhizosphere soil of Juniperus oxycedrus. The results obtained were as follows : Both the addition of organic amendments such as mycorrhizal inoculation treatments significantly increased biomass. Inoculation with the mixture of three AMF and G. intraradices combination with both organic amendments significantly improve the structural stability of soil. Values of carbon and soluble carbohydrates, increased only by adding composted sewage sludge or residue fermented DOC. Under proper irrigation, the highest percentages of stable aggregates were recorded in the amended soil, followed by soil inoculated with AMF. The drying caused a significant increase in the stability of soil aggregates in the rhizosphere of all plants, particularly in the amended and inoculated. In all treatments, the aggregates formed after drying were unstable soil as rewetting reached after initial level prior to drying. Rewetting the soil significantly decreased carbon such fractions. The third trial was conducted under field conditions where the effect of a combined treatment involved adding alperujo residue (DOC) treated with Aspergillus niger in the presence of phosphate rock, more pre-transplant seedling inoculation was evaluated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (MA) Glomus intraradices, Glomus deserticola or Glomus mosseae on the establishment of Dorycnium pentaphyllum L., in a semiarid Mediterranean area degraded. The results were as follows : The combined treatment with the addition of fermented residue alperujo and inoculation with AM fungi, particularly with G. mosseae, had the greatest effect to increase the biomass of D. pentaphyllum. Adding the fermented residue DOC mycorrhizal inoculation increased soil microbial activity and percentage of stable aggregates thereof. The amendment also increased the levels of fertility. Finally, we conducted a field experiment to evaluate the influence of different agricultural practices for a period of five years on the physical parameters, chemical and biological indicators of soil quality. Agricultural practices included the use of a residual herbicide, tillage, + oats, oat straw mulch and control (left field). The different treatments were compared with adjacent land colonized by natural vegetation. As a result of this, it could be highlighted : Improper agricultural management in a Mediterranean environment, such as using intensive tillage and herbicide use decreased soil quality affecting the structure of it and causing high rates of erosion. Management practices such as adding a mulch of straw were adequate and that contributed to an increase in total and water soluble carbohydrates, proteins related soil glomalin, total organic carbon and aggregate stability, resulting a reduction or even elimination of soil loss and water

Mots clés : Vegetación utilización del suelo Microorganismos Edafología

Présentation (Tesis Doctoral en Xarxa)

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Page publiée le 15 novembre 2015, mise à jour le 9 mars 2017