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K.U. Leuven (2013)

Runoff and soil loss responses under different soil and water conservation structures on rangeland and cropland, Tigray Ethiopia

Martens, Lotte

Titre : Runoff and soil loss responses under different soil and water conservation structures on rangeland and cropland, Tigray Ethiopia

Auteur : Martens, Lotte

Université de soutenance : K.U. Leuven

Grade : Master 2013

Résumé
An increased pressure on land due to rapid population growth, associated with deforestation, continued cultivation, overgrazing and increased soil erosion by water, are some of the main causes of the land degradation processes in the (semi)-arid Ethiopian highlands which threats their rain-fed agriculture. In response to these problems, the Ethiopian government has started with large scale soil and water conservation (SWC), water harvesting and irrigation campaigns since the last two decades to bring food self-sufficiency in the area. However the success of those campaigns were limited due to seepage and siltation of reservoirs and less inflow than expected due to the SWC interventions at catchment scale. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of the SWC structures such as stone bunds, trenches and stone bunds with trenches on the rainfall-runoff and rainfall-soil loss relationships because impact studies of catchment management in (semi)-arid areas in developing countries rarely included detailed information about the effectiveness of the SWC practices. Data collection over three years (rainy season of 2010, 2011 and 2012) made it’s possible to look at the evolution of the effectiveness of SWC structures on seasonal runoff production and soil loss by sheet and rill erosion. Hereby also the effects of two land use types (rangeland and cropland) and three different slope gradients : gentle (5%), medium (12%) and steep (16%) slope on seasonal runoff and soil loss were investigated. Measurements of runoff production and soil loss were conducted at 28 runoff plots with plot areas varying from 520 to 1000 m² on rangeland and cropland. Three different slope gradients and different SWC structures were tested at Mayleba catchment, a representative catchment for the north Ethiopian highlands. The results showed that the effect of land use type significantly influenced seasonal runoff coefficients (RCs) and seasonal soil loss (SLs).

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Page publiée le 15 novembre 2015, mise à jour le 25 janvier 2018