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Universidad de Murcia (2014)

Evaluación y diseño de un humedal construido para la depuración de aguas residuales domésticas

Andreo Martínez, Pedro

Titre : Evaluación y diseño de un humedal construido para la depuración de aguas residuales domésticas

Auteur : Andreo Martínez, Pedro

Université de soutenance : Universidad de Murcia

Grade : Tesis Doctoral 2014

Résumé partiel
Sewage treatment is a worldwide problem that is exacerbated in remote areas that don’t have access to municipal sewers. Sewage can cause pollution episodes in ground water and surface water, if wastewater is deposited in natural channels. In the development of new technologies to address the problems of sewage treatment, environmental sustainability is increasingly taken into account. Among these technologies, constructed wetlands are postulated as secondary systems, and in many cases tertiary, for wastewater treatment. These systems imitate the water purification processes performed by nature and are capable of producing effluent suitable for discharge or reuse. The following project has been focused to evaluate the effectiveness of a hybrid constructed wetland on the treatment of domestic wastewater generated by a single family without access to municipal sewers. For this, an isolated house in which a constructed wetland had just been installed was selected. The house was located in the countryside in Elche (Spain), where the climate is Mediterranean-semiarid. The system consist in a total oxidation filter that work as primary settling tank, a constructed wetland of subsurface flow planted with Phragmites australis, and a constructed wetland of surface flow planted with different hygrophilous plant species, which also acted as a reservoir for evaporation residue. For the project’s development, samples were taken during various stages ranging from the initial development of the wetland until its regular operation. The laboratory parameters studied were those outlined in RD 509/1996 regarding the labeling of treated sewage as waste, as well as those outlined in RD 1620/2007 regarding reuse of waters for agricultural purposes with quality standards of 2.1. Other analytical parameters such as pH, temperature, oils and fats, anionic and cationic surfactants, nitrogen compounds, phosphate, oxygen content, settleable solids, % NaCl and total dissolved solids (TDS), and also the more representative bioburden to check the effectiveness of the treatment process. Domestic wastewater had an average-strong character, being influenced by the particular household consumption habits. The wastewater treated by the constructed wetlands system were agree, during the first year of operation, with the parameters required by the law for the dumping and reuse of waters. The effluent of the second year did not meet the legal requirements due to changes in water flow in the subsurface water wetland that later affected the wetland’s surface, as water flow favored certain areas over others. At the beginning of the study’s second year, the constructed wetland subsurface flow suffered a complete drying and the appearance of preferred paths of water flow, issues which were repeated again the following year.

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