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Wien, Univ. für Bodenkultur (2011)

Trypanosomosis, genetic diversity and admixture in cattle breeds of Burkina Faso

Soudre, Albert

Titre : Trypanosomosis, genetic diversity and admixture in cattle breeds of Burkina Faso

Trypanosomose, genetische Diversität und Admixtur von Rinderrassen in Burkina Faso

Auteur : Soudre, Albert

Université de soutenance : Wien, Univ. für Bodenkultur

Grade : Doctoral Thesis 2011

Résumé _ Trypanosomosis is an important disease affecting animals in Burkina Faso. There is the Baoule, a trypanotolerant breed. An introgression of zebuine cattle which is susceptible to trypanosomosis has been observed in the tsetse challenged areas because farmers prefer the bigger Zebu animals for ploughing. The objectives of this study were to assess the importance of trypanosomosis among diseases in cattle in Burkina Faso ; to assess genetic diversity and level of admixture of cattle populations across the tsetse belt ; to investigate the breed composition of crossbred animals in trypanotolerance candidate gene regions. A survey has been carried out in 29 villages, 5 were in the tsetse free region. 134 Cattle breeders were interviewed. 25 DNA microsatellites were applied on 450 animals and 26 microsatellites on the X-chromosome of 300 males. Among 16 diseases, trypanosomosis is the most important in tsetse challenged areas. Isometamidium was used by 54% of respondents versus 47% for diminazene. The most decreased efficacy trypanocid was diminazene (87 %). On autosomes, the heterozygosity ranged from 0.34 to 0.76 and 0.36 to 0.87 respectively for observed and expected heterozygosity across loci. The Baoule South-West clearly segregated from other populations. In the X-chromosomal microsatellites, an age of admixture 69 ± 43 years was estimated. The fairly moderate genetic differentiation among indigenous cattle populations in Burkina Faso makes it possible to genetically improve these breeds. From 9 constructed SNP blocks in candidate regions, 5 blocks were involved in the disease control and confirmed by the deficiency of Zebu alleles in the crosses -0.15 (p = 0.02) to -0.34 Crossing susceptible breeds with the trypanotolerant can help to reduce trypanosomosis occurrence in cattle. It can be part of an integrated control method. Research is needed on the best level of breed composition.

Mots clés : Admixtur, Rind, Rasse, Baoule, Zebu, Burkina Faso, Züchter, SNP, Trypanosomose — Admixture, cattle, breed, Baoule, Zebu, Burkina Faso, breeder, SNP, trypanocid, trypanotolerance, trypanosomosis

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Page publiée le 25 décembre 2015, mise à jour le 13 mars 2019