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Universität für Bodenkultur Wien (2009)

Influence of environmental factors on the oil content and yield of Jatropha curcas L. in semiarid areas of Ethiopia

Delelegn, Yoseph Tewodros

Titre : Influence of environmental factors on the oil content and yield of Jatropha curcas L. in semiarid areas of Ethiopia

Der Einfluss von Umweltfaktoren auf den Ertrag und den Ölgehalt von Jatropha curcas L. in semiariden Gebieten Äthiopiens

Auteur : Delelegn, Yoseph Tewodros

Université de soutenance : Universität für Bodenkultur Wien

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2009

Résumé
Jatropha curcas L. or physic nut is a drought tolerant large shrub or small tree, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. It produces oil containing seed which can be processed into biodiesel. This study evaluated the influence of environmental factors on oil content and yield of J. curcas seed and identified sites that match high production of J. curcas seed oil. Nine J. curcas growing sites in Amhara Region were sampled and grouped into three different altitudinal zones. At each zone, seed samples and plant morphological data were collected from randomly selected trees of three homestead hedge plantations. Soil samples were also taken from fixed depth increments of 0-10 cm ; 10-20 cm ; and 20-30 cm from the same hedge row plantations for soil nutrient analysis. For oil content analysis and seed attribute characterization 100 seeds were picked from 27 sample points. Oil was extracted using Soxhlet extractor with hexane solvent. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Plant morphological attributes, oil content and oil yield differed significantly between the altitudinal zones. Pearson’s correlation coefficient also indicated that soil N in the first layer had a significant negative correlation with oil yield/tree (r= -0.401*). There were significant and positive correlations between soil pH of the two lower soil depths and seed oil content (0.464*, and 0.423*, respectively). Mean annual temperature had a significant negative correlation with kernel oil content (r= -0.526**), seed oil content (r= - 0.474*) and oil yield (r= -0.786**). Rainfall also had negative correlation with seed oil content (r= - 0.517**) and kernel oil content (r= -0.584**). However, rainfall did not show significant correlation with other yield attributes. The highest seed oil content of 35.76 % was obtained in the mid altitude range and the result indicated that there were non-linear relationships between altitude and seed oil content. The highest oil yield per tree of 117.63 g was obtained in the high altitude range. In general the study result indicated that areas in the higher altitudinal range are better suited for J. curcas plantation development.

Mots clés : Jatropha curcas, Äthiopien, biodiesel, Armut, Bodeneigenschaften — Jatropha curcas, Ethiopia, altitude, biodiesel, livelihoods, soil properties,

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Page publiée le 21 décembre 2015, mise à jour le 11 décembre 2017