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Universität für Bodenkultur Wien (2013)

Biotechnological approaches towards the genetic and phytosanitary improvement of Euphorbiaceae

Ramkat, Rose Chepchirchir

Titre : Biotechnological approaches towards the genetic and phytosanitary improvement of Euphorbiaceae

Auteur : Ramkat, Rose Chepchirchir

Université de soutenance : Universität für Bodenkultur Wien

Grade : Dr. nat. techn. 2013

Résumé
The family Euphorbiaceae is of significant importance as it comprises economically valuable crop species such as cassava, used as a staple food and serves for food security of millions in Asia and Africa, and Jatropha, which serves as a bio-fuel and pharmaceutical crop, with possibility of reclaiming marginal soils, reducing risks of erosion and desertification. Jatropha and cassava face challenges of both biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, different strategies which may contribute towards the improvement of Euphorbiaceae were employed : 1) The investigation of the genetic variation in Jatropha through ISSR and Ecotilling shed light on the nucleotide polymorphisms and provided clues to adaptive processes and populations history. 2) The use of molecular detection techniques led to the identification of viruses infecting Jatropha and cassava. Improved diagnosis allowed detection of pathogens in Jatropha and sequencing of the entire DNA A molecules of 40 Kenyan isolates belonging to African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda (EACMV-UG). 3) The in silico approach was applied to identify miRNA encoded by ACMV and EACMV-UG. Furthermore, plant miRNA with ability to bind ACMV and EACMV-UG DNA-A genomes were predicted. This led to identification of virus miRNA encoded in ORFs including the AC2 and AC4 which are suppressors of RNA silencing and pathogenesis related proteins. Mapping of their targets on the Jatropha and cassava ESTs showed that some of these targets are pathways involved in plant defense. Plant miRNAs that could target the ORFs of both ACMV and EACMV-UG were identified

Mots clés : Genetische Variation / Ecotilling / ISSR / Pathogenabwehr / African cassava mosaic virus / East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda / Jatropha / Maniok / Biodiesel / miRNA Vorhersage — Genetic variation / Ecotilling / ISSR / Pathogen defense / African cassava mosaic virus / East African cassava mosaic virus-Uganda / Jatropha / Cassava / biofuel / miRNA prediction

Présentation (österreichischen Bibliothekenverbundes)

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Page publiée le 12 décembre 2015, mise à jour le 13 mars 2019