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Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (2014)

Abordagem estocástica para análise da relação entre a disponibilidade e a demanda hídrica no futuro

Oliveira, Guilherme Garcia de

Titre : Abordagem estocástica para análise da relação entre a disponibilidade e a demanda hídrica no futuro

Auteur : Oliveira, Guilherme Garcia de

Université de soutenance  : Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.

Grade : Doctorate 2014

The purpose of this study was to propose a methodology to investigate the possible effects of climate change on water availability and changes in water requirement in the future, through a stochastic approach that considers climate, hydrological, agricultural and population projections. The method was applied to Ijuí river basin, northwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The methodology consisted of five modules, involving : i) hydrological modeling of monthly flows using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), ii) correction and analysis of climate scenarios for the future, derived from the Eta model CPTEC / HadCM3, iii) the stochastic modeling of monthly flows in the future, iv) the stochastic modeling of population and agricultural variables to generate water requirement series in the future and, v) the simulation of the water balance for the generation of curves regularization aiming an analysis of the relationship between water availability and water requirement in the future. Regarding the results of the hydrologic modeling, it is highlighted that ANN model more suitable model for the flow simulation presented only three input variables, obtaining a Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient equal to 0.904. It was observed, through sensitivity analysis, that the ANN related correctly chosen input variables with the output of the network, respecting the physical principles involved in the hydrological system. The analysis of climate scenarios and flows resulting from the hydrologic modeling process showed that the differences between the simulated values based on the Eta model and the observed values for the period of assessment models (1976-1990), errors sometimes reached more than 20 %. Therefore, one must consider that these uncertainties will be replicated in future scenarios, as to analysis of the effects of climate change on water availability. Overall, the results related to stochastic modeling of monthly flows for the future (2011-2040) showed a tendency to increase in flows. The average flow of long period, for example, introduced an amendment to 141.6 m³ / s (1961-1990) to 200.3 m³ / s (2011-2040). We observe an increase in the average flow and monthly standard deviation between January and October. The percentage increase in the monthly average flow was more pronounced between the months of February and June, exceeding the rate of 100%. Considering the confidence intervals of the estimates of flow for the future, it can be concluded that there is an increasing trend in hydrological variability in the period between 2011 and 2040, which indicates the possibility of time series with more severe periods of drought and flood. We found an increasing trend of irrigated agricultural activities above the trend towards livestock and human consumption. If the trend and residues modeled between 2003 and 2010 is maintained, irrigated areas in 2040 should reach 1,954 km², increasing water demand of 6.3 m³ / s (2011) to 28 m³ / s (2040), in the month of higher water demand (in January). The final step is to calculate the ratio between the demand for consumptive uses and water availability (demand / availability), we observe an increasing trend in the percentage in the period between 2011 and 2040. On average, the demand / availability in 2011 was only 6.06%, with values between 0.81% (May) to 20.15% (December). By 2040, this proportion increased to 13.82%, with values between 1.09% (May) to 43.3% (December). Finally, with regard to changes in the curves obtained for regularization by simulating the water balance in a fictitious reservoir, the results show that there is a need for reservoirs with increasing capacity to meet the demand for consumptive uses, upon confirmation of the scenario climate change used, because of worsening drought in early summer.

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Page publiée le 28 novembre 2015, mise à jour le 7 juillet 2017