Informations et ressources scientifiques
sur le développement des zones arides et semi-arides

Accueil du site → Doctorat → Afrique du Sud → 2009 → Bioconditioning and nitrogen fertility effects of selected cyanobacteria strains on two degraded soils in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

University of Fort Hare (2009)

Bioconditioning and nitrogen fertility effects of selected cyanobacteria strains on two degraded soils in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Maqubela, Mfundo Phakama

Titre : Bioconditioning and nitrogen fertility effects of selected cyanobacteria strains on two degraded soils in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Auteur : Maqubela, Mfundo Phakama

Université de soutenance : University of Fort Hare

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Soil Science 2009

Résumé
Some cyanobacteria strains have biofertilization and bioconditioning effects in soils. The objective of this study was to identify cyanobacteria with potential to improve the N fertility and structural stability of degraded soils and evaluate their effectiveness in soils of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Isolation and characterization of the indigenous cyanobacteria strains with desirable properties was first to be undertaken because their effects are known to differ from strain to strain. Cyanobacteria strains 3g, 3v, and 7e were identified from 97 strains isolated from selected soils. Nostoc strains 3g and 3v had greater ability to produce exocellular polysaccharides (EPS) but low potential to fix atmospheric N2 (4.7 and 1.3 nmol C2H4 μg chl-1 h-1, respectively). On the other hand, strain 7e had the highest capability to fix atmospheric N2 (16.1 nmol C2H4 μg chl-1 h-1) but had the least ability to produce EPS. Evaluation of the strains was done in glasshouse studies starting with Nostoc strain 9v isolated from a Tanzanian soil, followed by the indigenous strains isolated from soils in Hertzog and Qunu, South Africa. Inoculation was done by uniformly applying cyanobacteria on the surface of potted soils at a rate of 6 g m-2. First harvest and soil sampling took place after six weeks, and the top 25 mm of the soil was mixed, replanted, and sampled again after a further six weeks (second harvest). Inoculation with Nostoc strain 9v increased soil N by 40 percent and 17 percent in Guquka and Hertzog soils, respectively, and consequently increased maize dry matter yields by 40 and 49 percent. Soil C increased by 27 percent and 8 percent in Guquka and Hertzog soils, respectively, and this increase was significantly associated with that of soil N (R2 = 0.838). Higher contents of soil C, soil N and mineral N, however, were found in non-cropped soils. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed coatings of EPS on soil particles and fragments of non-cropped inoculated soils, with iii other particles enmeshed in networks of filaments, in contrast to cropped and/or non-inoculated soils. The proportion of very stable aggregates was increased by inoculation but cropping with maize reduced the aggregate stability. Inoculating Hertzog soil with indigenous strains 3g and 7e increased the nitrate N in the first cropping by 49 percent and 69 percent respectively, in cropped soils. In the second cropping increases in mineral N were 41 percent and 43 percent in 3g and 7e inoculated soils, respectively. Maize dry matter yields were higher on inoculated soils both in the first and second harvest in response to the improved N status of the soil. Increases in aggregate MWD in cropped soil as determined by fast wetting, mechanical breakdown and slow wetting were 85 percent, 33 percent, 33 percent, respectively, for 3g inoculation, 64 percent, 41 percent, and 41 percent, respectively, for 7e inoculation and 60 percent, 24 percent, 50 percent for inoculation with 9v. In non-cropped soil, increases in MWD as determined by fast wetting, mechanical breakdown and slow wetting were 11 percent, 0 percent, 7 percent, respectively for 3g inoculation, 21 percent, 11 percent, and 7 percent, respectively for 7e inoculation, and 25 percent, 36 percent, and 19 percent for strain 9v inoculation. Scanning electron microscopy observations, which were confirmed by chemical results, revealed that inoculated soils had high EPS and filaments that encouraged soil aggregation and improved aggregate stability. Results of this study show that cyanobacteria strains isolated and selected for their ability to fix atmospheric N2 and produce EPS improved the fertility status and aggregate stability of degraded soils from South Africa.

Présentation (SEALS)

Version intégrale (5 Mb)

Page publiée le 25 juin 2017