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Technische Universität Berlin (2015)

Contribution to water resources management in Almazraa Area, Damascus-Syria

Manal Wannous

Titre : Contribution to water resources management in Almazraa Area, Damascus-Syria

Beitrag zum Wasserressourcenmanagement am Beispiel des Stadtteils Almazraa von Damaskus-Syrien

Auteur : Manal Wannous

Université de soutenance : Technische Universität Berlin

Grade : Doctoral Thesis 2015

Résumé
Water management in Damascus is considered a big challenge for the water authorities. The location of Damascus in a semi-arid climate region in addition to the fast growth rate of the population adds more stress on the water resources. The water demand is insufficient during the dry season. A detailed investigation study was carried out in the eighties of the last century on the hydrogeological situation in Damascus. A set of questions regarding the groundwater recharge in the area of the Damascus Plain are still unanswered. The hydraulic connection between the aquifers in the area of the Damascus Plain is still not clear. This dissertation investigates the situation of the water management in Syria under the current legislation. A big disparity between what is done by the law and what is known through research can be observed. The main principles of water management are based on detailed knowledge of the structural situation of the resources and their behavior under different scenarios. The water management practiced until now in Syria shows that steps, which were done in this sector, are still not constructive enough and they do not satisfy the needs of Syria and Damascus in particular. This dissertation gives a basic contribution to the solution of questions that arise in water management in a context of an integrated water resources management. The groundwater recharge mechanism in the area of the Damascus Plain is still not clear and the function of the artificial recharge is based on the „trial and error” principle. A structural model is therefore necessary to estimate the recovery, the behavior, and the spreading of the groundwater. The mechanism of groundwater recharge was investigated in this dissertation. The research shows also, how the agriculture activities in this central part of Damascus Almazraa affect the groundwater quality. The investigations were made using chemical analysis, hydraulic assessment and numerical modeling, as well as taking the structural setting in to consideration. Two groundwater sampling campaigns took place in September 2010 and March 2011. The groundwater samples were taken from the aquifer of Quaternary a-apQIII-IV in Damascus. The wells are located in the Almazraa Area close to a tectonic zone in Qassioun Mountain. Almost all wells are used for irrigation. The analysis and the interpretation of the physical and the chemical parameters, as well as the stable isotopes, should answer the questions regarding groundwater recharge and flow paths. The results show that the investigated quaternary aquifer is most likely recharged from a deep aquifer. The groundwater temperature, the electrical conductivity and the pH values confirm this hypothesis. Furthermore, the chemical analysis shows that the composition of the recharging aquifer mainly consists of Dolomite and Carbonates. The stable isotopes of Deuterium and 18O show that the catchment area must be located approximately 1800 m.a.s.l The calculation of the potential evapotranspiration for an average rainfall in one hydrological year resulted in an average value of about 1200 mm. The simulation of the infiltrated water in the unsaturated zone indicates also that a big part of the rainfall and the irrigation water is stored in the soil passage and does not participate in the groundwater recharge. These calculations support the assumption that groundwater recharge does not take place through the infiltration from the surface. An executed simulation with climate data and soil properties extracted from infiltration tests, which were carried out in September 2010, shows that the infiltrated water from rainfall or irrigation goes into two main components : one small part is absorbed by plants and the remaining amount is stored in the unsaturated zone.

Mots clés  : Wasserbilanz ; Grundwasserneubildung ; künstliche Grundwasseranreicherung ; Wassermanagement — water balance ; groundwater recharge ; artificial groundwater recharge ; water management

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Page publiée le 6 décembre 2015, mise à jour le 29 décembre 2018