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Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (2013)

Avaliação de unidades demonstrativas de palma forrageira (Nopalea e Opuntia) no estado de Pernambuco

Costa de Lima Natália

Titre : Avaliação de unidades demonstrativas de palma forrageira (Nopalea e Opuntia) no estado de Pernambuco

Auteur : Costa de Lima Natália

Université de soutenance  : Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco

Grade : Mestre em Zootecnia 2013

Résumé
The cactus pear is the staple diet of livestock in semi-arid Northeast to be a culture adapted to the environmental conditions of the region and provide nutrients and alleviate the water supply in the feed. But the cactus pear is being attacked by the cochineal carmine, a plague that causes a reduction in the production of this crop, which could lead to death of these plants. The researchers suggest an alternative control planting clones resistant to the pest. With the objective of disseminating genetic material, IPA (Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco) implemented in 2010 Demonstration Units of cactus pear resistant cochineal carmine in 39 municipalities of the state of Pernambuco. With this work, we analyzed the response and socioeconomic profile of farmers, through questionnaires, in 25 of the counties containing the Demonstration Units of Palma. Furthermore, the aim was also to assess morphological, bromatológicos, productive and toilets in 28 municipalities. For the data was evaluated by questionnaires averaged frequency, the fashion, the standard deviation, coefficient of variation and amplitude. For the data of morphological evaluations, productive and sanitary analysis of variance was performed on the program Genes and comparison between means was performed using Fisher’s test at 5%. The farmers interviewed were family-based, and, mostly, men in the management of livestock activities. Most respondents were married and with children, with a mean age of 49 years and 20% had schooling to complete high school. Producers, 60% had a deed of land and properties acquired by purchase and inheritance and 76% participated in associations and / or unions. Most properties can be characterized by small farms (0-19 ha), the main activity of the cattle. The units had on average 1.9 years after implantation, and planting palm 52% of the Units was held at the beginning of the rainy season, using organic and mineral fertilization. Of the farmers interviewed, 72% used hand weeding to control weeds. Despite the failure in the technical and standardization of management, 96% of producers plan to improve and allocate more areas to plant palm cultivars resistant to the cochineal carmine. The IPA Sertânia was superior to Orelha de Elefante Mexicana in the content of crude protein and potassium. The IPA Sertânia also showed a higher number of primary cladodes that Orelha de Elefante Mexicana. As for diseases, there was no significant difference between the average scores assigned with only median infestation by soft rot. The presence of cochineal scale in palmais also showed no differences among clones. With this, it is observed that the clone IPA Sertânia presents over Orelha de Elefante Mexicana in most traits. This fact does not rule out the clone Orelha de Elefante Mexicana as an alternative for producers, since features depend on the production and management adopted by the producer and the place where the property is located.

Mots clés  : Resistência a cochonilha ; Palma forrageira ; Cactus pear ; Resistance cochineal carmine

Présentation (RCAAP)

Version intégrale

Page publiée le 8 janvier 2016, mise à jour le 24 juillet 2017