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Universität zu Köln (2004)

Haushaltsökonomie, soziale Netzwerke und Identität. Risikominimierende Strategien von Pastoralisten und Lohnarbeitern im Richtersveld, Südafrika

Berzborn, Susanne

Titre : Haushaltsökonomie, soziale Netzwerke und Identität. Risikominimierende Strategien von Pastoralisten und Lohnarbeitern im Richtersveld, Südafrika

Auteur : Berzborn, Susanne

Université de soutenance : Universität zu Köln

Grade : Doctoral 2004

Résumé
This study follows an actor-centred approach and analyses different risk-minimising strategies of a rural population in the Richtersveld, north western part of Northern Cape, South Africa. The inhabitants are Nama and other groups, classified as �Coloured� during Apartheid times, together constituting the Richtersveld community of today. The Richtersveld is an arid region where winter- and summer-rainfall regimes meet. Small-stock farming is the only possible way of agricultural land use. Regional diamond mines are the most import � however highly risky � source of income. Livestock farming and state pensions contribute substantially to the livelihoods as well. First, the state of the art, the theoretical background and the methodology is outlined, followed by an historical overview and an account of economical options today. The four main chapters on risk-minimising strategies focus on household economy, pastoralism, cooperation between individuals of separate households and the use of identities. (1) Households are focused on nuclear families and can be used as an unit of analysis. Household members diversify economic activities and pool income generated by wage labour and livestock husbandry. Pooling and redistribution is governed by institutional arrangements. (2) The next chapter looks at small-stock farming on the communal lands and presents the numerous strategies practiced by pastoralists in order to minimise risks (e.g. by saisonal mobility). (3) The third main chapter addresses cooperation between households. By applying network analytical tools and interpreting qualitative data the support networks between individuals of different households were analysed. People are mostly connected to close kin. (4) On a superordinate level, the strategic use of ethnic and regional identities was identified as another strategy to allocate resources (like land) in the �new� South Africa. These group-based strategies have not been part of research on risk-minimisation yet. The empirical data is historically contextualised and correlated to other research in southern Africa. As a contribution to the research on vulnerability of people living in an uncertain environment, the study proposes parameters that allow an approach to measure vulnerability and that can be valid for other studies as well.
This dissertation is based on 21 months of ethnographic research between 1999 and 2003 and draws upon quantitative as well as qualitative data (household survey with 100 randomly selected informants, 42 ego-centred networks, 22 interviews on household budgets, genealogies, life histories and numerous semi-structured and open interviews).

Mots clés  : Ethnologie, Nama, Identität, Viehwirtschaft, Migrationsarbeit, Diamantenminen, Vulnerabilität, Geschichte, Post-Apartheid, Landrechte, Nationalpark — Anthropology, Nama, identity, pastoral economy, migrant labour, diamond mines, vulnerability, history, post-apartheid, landrights, national park

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Page publiée le 21 janvier 2016, mise à jour le 8 janvier 2019