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Universidad Federal do Ceara (2011)

Hidrossedimentologia e disponibilidade hidrica da bacia hidrografica da Barragem de Poilao, Cabo Verde

Teixeira, José João Lopes

Titre : Hidrossedimentologia e disponibilidade hidrica da bacia hidrografica da Barragem de Poilao, Cabo Verde

Hidrossedimentologia e disponibilidade hídrica da bacia hidrográfica da Barragem de Poilão, Cabo Verde

Auteur : Teixeira, José João Lopes

Université de soutenance : Universidad Federal do Ceara

Grade : Mestre em Engenharia Agricola 2011

Cape Verde Islands, located in the West African coast, are influenced by the Sahara desert, making the climate characterized by very low rainfall and great spatial and temporal variability. The rainfall events are highly concentrated generating large flows to the sea. The increase of water availability requires construction and maintenance of infrastructure to capture and conserve rainwater, and also an efficient management of these resources. Nowadays, capture, storage and mobilization of water surface through construction of dams is one of the strategic priorities of the policy of the State of Cape Verde. Studies of hydrology and sedimentology of the only existing reservoir (PoilÃo Dam, 1.2 hmÂ) and its watershed are the basic requirements for adequate design, management and monitoring of this infrastructure. In this sense, the present study aimed at systematizing hydrological and sediment information of the PoilÃo Dam and providing a long-term operational proposal. The altitude of the basin varies from 99 m, situated on the dam, up to 1394m. For the study, the following data were used and systematized : rainfall dataset from 1973 to 2010 ; records of instantaneous flow for the period of 1984 to 2000 ; and agro-climatic records from 1981 to 2004. To fill the gaps of both flow and suspended-sediment discharge, the rating-curve method was used. To estimate sediment yield in the watershed it was applied the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), associated with the Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR). The sediment release efficiency rate of the reservoir was estimated by Brune method and the sediment distribution inside the reservoir by the empirical area reduction method described by Borland and Miller, and reviewed by Lara. To assess water availability, water yield versus reliability curves were used. These curves were obtained by the computer code VYELAS, developed by AraÃjo and based on Campos approach. The reduction of the water yield (caused by the reservoir silting) within the period from 2006 to 2026 was also assessed. It was concluded that the average annual rainfall in the watershed is 323 mm, concentrating 73% in August and September ; the watershed presents a number of curve (CN) of 76 with an initial abstraction (Ia) of 26 mm, the runoff coefficient is 19% and the average annual inflow is 1.7 hm (coefficient of variation 0.73) ; the water availability at 85% reliability level is estimated at 0.548 hmÂ/year and not 0.671 hmÂ/year as the original design indicates. With a sediment discharge estimated at 22,185 mÂ/year, it was concluded that, by the year 2026, the annual reservoir storage capacity reduction rate is 1.18% (due to siltation), causing a 41% reduction of the initial water availability. At that time, losses due to evaporation and spillway overflow totalize 81% of annual inflow. Based on these results, a PoilÃo reservoir operation proposal is presented


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