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Universidade Federal do Ceara (2010)

Diversidade genetica e patogenicidade de Lasiodiplodia theobromae associado ao cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale)

Moreira Melo José Glauber

Titre : Diversidade genetica e patogenicidade de Lasiodiplodia theobromae associado ao cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale)

Auteur : Moreira Melo José Glauber

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal do Ceara

Grade : Mestre em Agronomia/Fitotecnia 2010

Description
The cashew has a major socio-economic and cultural development for the Northeast region, by generating employment for farmers and is frequently their only source of income. Thus, research on this fruit has increased greatly in recent years, aimed primarily to reduce damage and increase plant productivity. Diseases, as in other crops, cause significant damage. Among cashew diseases, gummosis and black stem rot, both caused by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, stand out among the major diseases in some regions of the semi-arid. However, there are few studies on the biology, morphology, genetic characterization of this pathogen, a fact that burden their management. This study aimed to characterize the genetic and pathogenic diversity of a population of 22 isolates of L. theobromae associated with cashew, using microsatellite markers and inoculations in cashew plants. For molecular characterization, DNA was extracted from mycelium of each isolated of the fungus grown in liquid medium. Each DNA sample was subjected to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 15 pairs of primers designed to flank specific regions containing simple repeated sequences (microsatellites) in this species. The amplified products were observed in gel electrophoresis stained with ethidium bromide, and the data recorded on a binary and analyzed by grouping unbalanced based on arithmetic mean (UPGMA) using the program MVSP. Genetic similarities were estimated by the coefficient of Nei and Li The results indicated a large genetic variability of the population, represented by different groups of similarity ranging from 22.2% to 100%. Three of these isolates showed 100% genetic similarity with the markers tested. However, they were morphologically differences and one of them was originated from different location than the others. The data showed that the genetic similarity alone should not be applied as the only factor of diversity among isolates. To test the pathogenicity, each isolate was inoculated on cashew seedlings. Lesion development size and recovery of the fungus were recorded. The results showed no statistical differences between the isolates, which demonstrates that, regardless of place of origin, all isolates were pathogenic, and its growth rate decreases, i. e, the plant must produce some form of defense against pathogen, which hinders their infection.

Mots clés  : Cajueiro - doenÃas e pragas ; Lasiodiplodia theobromae ; resinose ; podridÃo preta das hastes ; Cashew - diseases and pests ; Lasiodiplodia theobromae ; gummosis, black rot of the stems ; Anacardium - DoenÃas e pragas ; Fungos

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Page publiée le 26 décembre 2015, mise à jour le 12 septembre 2018