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South Valley University (2012)

Effect of salinity on physiological activities of some economical plants

Sallam, Mohammed Mostafa

Titre : Effect of salinity on physiological activities of some economical plants

Auteur : Sallam, Mohammed Mostafa

Etablissement de soutenance : South Valley University

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2012

Résumé partiel
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of naci stress on growth and some related physiological activitied of wheat cultivars (sids 12, sids4, bani sweif 2 and giza 165 ) the main experimental results can be summarized in the following points : 1- A considerable variation in the salt tolerance among the four studied wheat cultivars has been observed. this variation was also revealed among the shoots and roots of each cultivar. the results revealed that cv. sids 12 cultivar had a gradual decrease in dry matter mass production with increasing salt level, but in cvs. sids 4 and bani sweif 2, there is a significant reduction in dry matter production of different organs Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the staple foods for more than 35% of world population (Almaghrabi, 2012). Wheat is the most important and widely adapted food cereal in Egypt. However, egypt supplies only 40% of its annual domestic demand for wheat ( Abdel Latef, 2010). Egypt is one of the countries that suffer from severe salinity problems. For example, 33% of the cultivated land, which comprises only 3% of total land area in Egypt, is already salinized due to low precipitation (<25mM annual rainfall) and irri- gation with saline water (Abdel Latef, 2010). Soil salinity has been a major concern to global agriculture throughout human history (Zhang et al., 2011). Soil salinity is one of the significant abiotic stresses for plant agriculture worldwide up to 20% of the irrigated arable land in arid and semi-arid regions is already salt affected and that portion is still expanding (Yeilaghi et al., 2012). Under salt stress, plants have to cope with water stress imposed bythe low external water potential and with ion toxicity due to accumulation of ions inside the plants (Romero-Aranda et al., 2006). In addition to its known components of osmotic stress and ion toxicity, salt stress is also manifested as an oxidative stress, which contributes to its deleterious effects (Hernández et al., 2001, Teixeira and Pereira, 2007). Roots are usually the first tissues exposed to sodium stress. For this reason, and the fact that roots depend on mitochondria for most of cellular energy production, sodium stress related impairment ofmitochondria function is likely to be particularly important in roots (Hamilton and Heckathron, 2001). During the continuous exposure of salt to the plant, the rate of export from the root can exceed the rate of compartmentalization in the shoot. If this occurs, salt ions will accumulate outside the vacuole, either in the cytoplasm or in the apoplast and produce toxicity symptoms (Shahzad et al., 2011).

Mots Clés : Plants - Effect of stress on. Crops - Effect of stress on. Crops - Physiology. Botany, Economic. النباتات الإقتصادية - زراعة. النبات - فسيولوجيا.

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