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Assuit University (2012)

Water and Salinity Management under Surge flow Irrigation System

Bakr, Ahmed Masoud Mohamed

Titre : Water and Salinity Management under Surge flow Irrigation System

Auteur : Bakr, Ahmed Masoud Mohamed.

Etablissement de soutenance : Assuit University

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2012

Résumé partiel
The goal of sustainable development should be to make sure that the unlimited natural resources are available for future generation. Sustainable development of water resources requires that we respect the hydrologic cycle by efficiently use the available resourses beside using renewable water resources that are not diminished over the long term by their use. The increasing competition for water shall greatly affect the water supply for irrigated agriculture in arid and semi-arid countries Since The major agricultural use of water is for irrigation. Egypt is a country with limited water resources. The main source of water in Egypt is the nile river. According to the treaty of 1959, Egypt’s share in nile waters is 55.5 billion m3/ year. The total renewable groundwater resources amount to 7.5 billion m3/ year. The main source of the ground water recharge is percolation from irrigation water, and its quality depends mainly on the quality of the irrigation water. Rain fall in Egypt lies in a virtually rainless zone. Almost 86% of the total area is classified as extremely arid and 14 % as arid. The average annual rain fall on the Mediterranean coast varies from 150 to 200 mm decreasing rapidly to 30 mm in Cairo. The region extending from south of Cairo to the border with Sudan is practically rainless. Improving water efficiency of Egypt’s irrigation system in the farm level may consider good option to increase production per unit of water. In Egypt the dominant irrigation method is surface irrigation. It covers approximately 83% of the irrigated areas and generally characterized by a low application efficiency. One opportunity to increase the efficiency of surface irrigation is to convert it to sprinkler or drip, however converting surface irrigation systems to sprinkler or drip is highly expensive. Another option is to convert it to surge flow irrigation. Surge flow irrigation is define as the intermittent application of water to furrows or borders in a series of relatively short on and off time periods, which usually vary from about a few minutes to several hours. It can increase the overall efficiency of surface irrigation by increasing application uniformity and decreasing run-off and deep percolation. It increases the productivity of water in comparison to traditional continuous flow. Surge flow irrigation can be used for different crops, like wheat, onions, potatoes, sugar beets and any other crops suitable for surface irrigation. The main achievement of surge flow irrigation is that it decreases run-off and deep percolation. Decreasing run-off and deep percolation may lead to salt accumulation in the root zone, thus the soil quality and crop yields may deteriorate after certain years of using surge flow irrigation. The main objectives of the study were to investigate water use efficiency, salt accumulation in root zone and what should be taken into account to protect the root zone from salinization under surge flow in comparison to traditional continuous flow. To fulfill the research objectives field experiments were carried out at the experimental Station of soil and water department‚ faculty of agricultural‚ Assiut University‚ situated at 27 0 11’N latitude‚ 310 10’E longitude. The design of the experiments was randomized complete block design. The land of the experiments was prepared for cultivation in autumn 2007 by ploughing, leveling and raking the soil. The length of the furrows used in the experiments was 76 m and their width and slope were 0.70 m 0.0024 m/m respectively. The furrows had a blocked end. Four monitoring points at ¼ L ½ L, ¾ L, and 1 L were established along the furrow to monitor the advance time. The distance between two consecutive points was 19 m. Three treatments related to the objectives of this research have been chosen. The treatments were : continuous flow (CF), surge flow (SF) and surge flow with cut back (SFCB). Each treatment studied in three replications. The replicate consists of fifteen furrows : 3, 6 and 6 for CF, SF and SFCB treatments respectively. In each treatment the samples were collected from the middle controlled furrow. The selected discharge was 1.5 l/s and conveyed to the furrows from an open channel with constant head. Under each irrigation treatment two field crops were grown, wheat (Triticum aestivum vulgar) for winter season and maize (single hybrid type) for summer season. The first growing season started in december, 2007. All the agriculture practices including number of irrigation for each crop were applied at the recommendations set by the Ministry of Agriculture. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers were added according to the recommended rates.

Présentation étendue (EULC)

Page publiée le 23 janvier 2016, mise à jour le 5 février 2019