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Technische Universität Dresden (2012)

Optimal simulation based design of deficit irrigation experiments

Seidel Sabine

Titre : Optimal simulation based design of deficit irrigation experiments

Optimales simulationsbasiertes Design von Defizitbewässerungsexperimenten

Auteur : Seidel Sabine

Université de soutenance : Technische Universität Dresden

Grade : Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr.rer.nat.) 2012

Résumé
There is a growing societal concern about excessive water and fertilizer use in agricultural systems. High water productivity while maintaining high crop yields can be achieved with appropriate irrigation scheduling. Moreover, freshwater pollution through nitrogen (N) leaching due to the widespread use of N fertilizers demands for an efficient N fertilization management. However, sustainable crop management requires good knowledge of soil water and N dynamics as well as of crop water and N demand.
Crop growth models, which describe physical and physiological processes of crop growth as well as water and matter transport, are considered as powerful tools to assist in the optimization of irrigation and fertilization management. It is of a general nature that the reliability of simulation based predictions depends on the quality and quantity of the data used for model calibration and validation which can be obtained e.g. in field experiments. A lack of data or low data quality for model calibration and validation may cause low performance and large uncertainties in simulation results. The large number of model parameters to be calibrated requires appropriate calibration methods and a sequential calibration strategy. Moreover, a simulation based planning of the field design saves costs and expenditure while supporting maximal outcomes of experiments. An adjustment of crop growth modeling and experiments is required for model improvement and development to reliably predict crop growth and to generalize predicted results. In this research study, a new approach for simulation based optimal experimental design was developed aiming to integrate simulation models, experiments, and optimization methods in one framework for optimal and sustainable irrigation and N fertilization management.
The approach is composed of three steps : 1. The preprocessing consists of the calibration and validation of the crop growth model based on existing experimental data, the generation of long time-series of climate data, and the determination of the optimal irrigation control. 2. The implementation comprises the determination and experimental application of the simulation based optimized deficit irrigation and N fertilization schedules and an appropriate experimental data collection. 3. The postprocessing includes the evaluation of the experimental results namely observed yield, water productivity (WP), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and economic aspects, as well as a model evaluation.
Five main tools were applied within the new approach : an algorithm for inverse model parametrization, a crop growth model for simulating crop growth, water balance and N balance, an optimization algorithm for deficit irrigation and N fertilization scheduling, and a stochastic weather generator. Furthermore, a water flow model was used to determine the optimal irrigation control functions and for simulation based estimation of the optimal field design. The approach was implemented within three case studies presented in this work.
The new approach combines crop growth modeling and experiments with stochastic optimization. It contributes to a successful application of crop growth modeling based on an appropriate experimental data collection. The presented model calibration and validation procedure using the collected data facilitates reliable predictions. The stochastic optimization framework for deficit irrigation and N fertilization scheduling proved to be a powerful tool to enhance yield, WP, NUE and profit.

Mots clés  : Defizitbewässerung, stochastische Optimierung, Kalibrierung, Experimentelles Design, Pflanzenwachstumsmodellierung — deficit irrigation, stochastic optimisation, calibration, experimental design, crop growth

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Page publiée le 13 janvier 2016, mise à jour le 2 décembre 2018