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University of Tübingen (2011)

Migration driven by Electrification - The Impact of Electrification on Growth Dynamics of Rural Areas in Developing Countries

Diederich, Hauke

Titre : Migration driven by Electrification - The Impact of Electrification on Growth Dynamics of Rural Areas in Developing Countries

Auteur : Diederich, Hauke

Université de soutenance : University of Tübingen

Grade : Masterarbeit 2011

Résumé
Despite the fact that there have been many electrification projects in developing countries, little research has been done on their impacts on migration patterns. Most countries experience considerable rural-urban migration with controversial effects on rural communities. This study investigates whether electrification contributes to sustainable rural development and, thus, slows down the rural exodus. The study reports on research findings from three case studies in rural Nicaragua, two with access to electricity and one without. It aims to provide insight into the scope and depth of impacts of electrification on rural livelihoods and the links between electricity provision and rural migration. Structured and semi-structured interviews as well as participatory rural appraisal techniques allowed for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data. The Sustainable Livelihood Framework provided a conceptual framework to evaluate the impacts. It was found, that lighting provided positive impacts on the rural poor’s livelihood, but a higher one on the productive sector. All three case studies did not suffer from rural-urban migration, but have shown significant in-migration in the last years. However, the village without electricity supply attracted mostly farmers and day labourers from the nearby uplands, whereas the electrified communities attracted more businessmen and craftsmen. Thus, the study concludes that electrification is a key factor to incentivise skilled labour migration.

Mots clés  : Migration , Elektrifizierung , Elektrizitätsversorgung , Entwicklungsländer , Mittelamerika , Lateinamerika — Electrification , Developing Countries , Development, Latin America

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