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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Allemagne → 2003 → Zum Einfluss von Witterung und Klima auf den Landschaftszustand und die Landschaftsentwicklung im Uvs-Nuur-Becken (NW-Mongolei)

Universität Potsdam (2003)

Zum Einfluss von Witterung und Klima auf den Landschaftszustand und die Landschaftsentwicklung im Uvs-Nuur-Becken (NW-Mongolei)

Barsch Andreas

Titre : Zum Einfluss von Witterung und Klima auf den Landschaftszustand und die Landschaftsentwicklung im Uvs-Nuur-Becken (NW-Mongolei)

Auteur : Barsch Andreas

Université de soutenance : Universität Potsdam

Grade : Doctor Rerum Naturalium (Dr.rer.nat) 2003

Landscape condition and landscape development express the functional relations between energy balance, water balance and material balance on the one hand and on the other hand they reflect the effects of land use. At present the global increase of near-surface air temperature changes the energy balance, water balance and material balance in many places. Especially in arid regions this trend and an inappropriate land use restrict the regeneration ability of vegetation and lead to the degradation of soil cover. Different scenarios for global warming prognosticate high values of increasing air temperature in Mongolia and its adjacent regions in Asia. A global estimation of anthropogenicly induced soil degradation classifies this region as strongly or extremely strong affected. Against this background a research was carried out in the Uvs Nuur Basin, placed in the northwest of Mongolia and therefore in one of the most arid regions of this country. The object of investigation was the reflection of the global increase of air temperature on a local and regional level and the resulting changes of landscape balance. From 1997 to 1999 the effects of changes in summer weather on the landscape condition were measured on a transect from the Kharkhiraa mountains at the western margin of the basin up to the lake Uvs at the centre of the basin. The transect included alpine mat, mountain steppe, dry steppe and semi desert. Climatic data was collected at 9 transect stations, in addition with characteristics of vegetation, soil and soil moisture. The data of summer 1998 was bundled and consolidated with a cluster analysis. On this basis forms of landscape condition could be evaluated in content, arranged chronologically and characterised by time performance models (stacks). The time performance models prove that forms of landscape condition marking the heat and the drought of summer 1998 can be found at every station of the transect except of the one on the summit of Khukh Uul at almost 3.000 m above sea level and another groundwater-influenced station at the bank of lake Uvs. However, extremely dry periods occur only from the centre of the basin up to the foothills, thus in the semi desert, the dry steppe and the short grass steppe. They do not occur in the mountain forest and in the alpine mat. Areas in the semi desert are most affected by drought and lack of precipitation during the summer 1998. Four fifths of the days in the measurement period are extremely droughty days. Either there is no precipitation at all or it is insufficient to fill up the soil water storage exhausted since spring-time. The relation of precipitation and potential evaporation averages out here at 1:12. A progressive desertification becomes apparent in the semi desert, particularly determined by an inappropriate land use in conjunction with an increasing goat-rearing in the area around the settlements. Partially this trend even affects the dry steppe in adjacency to the semi desert toward the margin of the basin. These areas are characterised not only by the highest stocking rate but also by the largest number of unofficial dirt roads thus leading to the denudation of the soil cover and finally to the spreading of desertification processes. From the methodical point of view it is obvious that the characterisation by time performance models facilitates the determination of weather and climate influence on landscape condition by summarising their information. However, the interpretation of the results has to be accomplished by a describing analysis of the measured data. The procedure applied in the western Uvs Nuur Basin and its adjacent mountains provides the opportunity to examine and substantiate the reports on global warming at regional or local level

Mots clés  : Clusteranalyse ; Energie- ; Klima ; Landschaftshaushalt ; Mongolei ; Uvs-Nuur-Becken ; Wasser- und Stoffhaushalt ; Witterung ; landsch ; multivariate Statistik — Mongolia ; Uvs Nuur Basin ; climate ; cluster analy ; energy balance ; landscape balance ; material balance ; multivariate statistics ; water balance ; weather


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