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Technischen Universitat Munchen (2008)

Grass-tree interactions and the ecology of African savannas under current and future climates

Scheiter, Simon

Titre : Grass-tree interactions and the ecology of African savannas under current and future climates

Gras-Baum-Interaktionen und die Ökologie afrikanische Savannen unter aktuellem und zukünftigem Klima

Auteur : Scheiter, Simon

Université de soutenance : Technischen Universitat Munchen

Grade : Doktors der Naturwissenschaften 2008

Résumé
Two important questions in savanna ecology are (1) how do grasses and trees manage to coexist in savannas while excluding each other in grasslands or rainforests and (2) how do savannas respond to anticipated climate change. This thesis presents two different savanna models to explore these questions. It is shown that a heuristic and deterministic model can explain grass-tree coexistence on a rainfall gradient between 200 mm and 1200 mm mean annual precipitation and that vegetation dynamics are stable on this gradient. The thesis further presents a dynamic and process-based vegetation simulation model for savannas that can simulate observed vegetation patterns in Africa from a small number of environmental input data. Simulation results show that fire suppression in Africa would increase biomass by about 13%. Simulations under IPCC climate change scenarios predict a significant shift towards tree dominated biomes. With these results, this thesis contributes to the current savanna and climate change research

Mots clés  : Savanna, grass-tree coexistence, aDGVM, climate change, Africa, DGVM, process-based model, fire, competition — Savanne, Gras-Baum Koexistenz, aDGVM, Klimawandel, Afrika, DGVM, prozessbasiertes Modell, Feuer, Konkurrenz

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Page publiée le 30 décembre 2015, mise à jour le 10 janvier 2019