Informations et ressources scientifiques
sur le développement des zones arides et semi-arides

Accueil du site → Master → Afrique du Sud → 2014 → Effect of agronomic management on growth and yield of selected leafy vegetables

University of South Africa (2014)

Effect of agronomic management on growth and yield of selected leafy vegetables

Maseko, Innocent

Titre : Effect of agronomic management on growth and yield of selected leafy vegetables

Auteur : Maseko, Innocent

Université de soutenance : University of South Africa

Grade : Master of Science (MS) in Agriculture 2014

Résumé partiel
African leafy vegetables have been shown and suggested to have potential to contribute to human diets and alleviate malnutrition ; however, their levels of utilisation are currently low especially in South Africa. This is because there is limited access to these crops due to low availability in the market. Limited access is attributed, in part, to the lack of commercialisation as a result of limited agronomic information describing optimum management options for these leafy vegetables. Availability of such information would contribute to successful commercialisation of these crops. The primary objective of this study was to establish optimum agronomic management factors for Amaranthus cruentus, Corchorus olitorius, Vigna unguiculata and Brassica juncea for irrigated commercial production in South Africa. Seeds of Amaranthus cruentus, Corchorus olitorius were obtained from the Agricultural Research Council seed bank ; Vigna unguiculata were obtained from Hydrotech and Brassica juncea seeds were obtained from Stark Ayres. The project consisted of three field studies whose overall objective was to evaluate growth and yield responses of the selected African leafy vegetables to agronomic factors under irrigated commercial production. These field studies comprised of two single factors ; summer trials (planting density and nitrogen on three selected crops) and a combined winter trial (nitrogen, irrigation, plant density and planting date on a winter crop). Chapter three (3) investigated the effect of plant density on growth, physiology and yield responses of Amaranthus cruentus, Corchorus olitorius and Vigna unguiculata to three plant densities under drip irrigated commercial production. The plant density levels of 100 000, 66 666 and 50 000 plants/ha were used in the 2011/12 and 2012/13 summer seasons. Parameters measured included chlorophyll content index (CCI), chlorophyll fluorescence (CF), stomatal conductance (SC), leaf number, leaf area index (LAI) and biomass. Amaranthus cruentus and Corchorus olitorius showed better leaf quality at lower plant density of 50 000 plants ha-1 than at 66 666 plants ha-1 and 100 000 plants ha-1. These results are based on bigger leaves expressed as leaf area index (LAI), better colour expressed as chlorophyll (CCI) and higher biomass per plant observed in these crops at 50 000 plants ha-1 in comparison to 66 666 plants ha-1 and 100 000 plants ha-1. In Vigna unguiculata there were no responses observed in LAI and CCI. In Amaranthus cruentus, Corchorus olitorius and Vigna unguiculata fresh and dry mass yield of leaves were higher at 100 000 plants ha-1 compared to other treatments. In A. cruentus and C. olitorius, higher leaf quality parameters (CCI, plant height, leaf number, biomass per plant and LAI) indicated that these crops can perform better at lower densities of 50 000 than at 66 666 plants ha-1 and 100 000 plants ha-1 Therefore, using 50 000 plants ha- 1 is suitable for commercial production of A. cruentus and C. olitorius. In Vigna unguiculata, a plant density of 100 000 plants ha-1 produced the highest fresh and dry mass per unit area without compromising quality in terms of the leaf size (LAI) and colour (CCI). Therefore 100 000 plants ha-1 is a density recommended for commercial production in V. unguiculata.Chapter four (4) was conducted to investigate growth, physiology and yield responses of A. cruentus, C. olitorius and V unguiculata to nitrogen application under drip irrigated commercial production. Three nitrogen treatments levels were used viz. 0, 44 and 88 kg N ha- 1 in 2011/12 season and four nitrogen treatments levels viz. 0, 50, 100 and 125 kg N ha-1 were used in 2012/13 summer season. The nitrogen levels selected for each season were based on recommendations for Amaranthaceae species, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.var cicla) derived from soil analysis of the trial (field) site. Parameters measured included chlorophyll content index (CCI), chlorophyll fluorescence (CF), stomatal conductance (SC), leaf number, leaf area index (LAI) and biomass.

Mots clés : Brassica juncea, Amaranthus cruentus, Corchorus olitorius, Vigna unguiculata, irrigation, nitrogen, planting density, planting date

Présentation

Version intégrale (1,21 Mb)

Page publiée le 3 janvier 2016, mise à jour le 4 juin 2018