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Accueil du site → Doctorat → États-Unis → 1982 → The development and water use of moisture-stressed and non-stressed sorghum (Sorghum Bicolon (L.) Moench)

University of Arizona (1982)

The development and water use of moisture-stressed and non-stressed sorghum (Sorghum Bicolon (L.) Moench)

O’Neill, Michael Kirkbride

Titre : The development and water use of moisture-stressed and non-stressed sorghum (Sorghum Bicolon (L.) Moench)

Auteur : O’Neill, Michael Kirkbride

Université de soutenance : University of Arizona

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 1982

Résumé
The development, yield and water use of six sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) hybrids and their respective male and female parents were evaluated under stressed and well irrigated conditions during 1980 and 1981 at Tucson, Arizona. Changes in soil moisture storage were measured by neutron modulation on a semiweekly schedule. Transpiration, diffusive resistance and leaf-ambient temperature differentials were monitored biweekly using a steady state porometer. Meteorological data was collected on a daily basis. The 1980 season had higher maximum temperatures and pan evaporation than the 1981 season. Differences in soil moisture extraction among sorghum entries were not apparent within water treatments. Mean cumulative evapotranspiration (ET) for the stressed treatment was 270 and 261 mm, for 1980 and 1981, respectively. Mean cumulative ET for irrigated treatment was about twice that at 520 and 648 mm during 1980 and 1981, respectively. There were no apparent differences in cumulative ET for entries in the stressed treatment while genotypic differences were manifested under well irrigated conditions. Temperature differential demonstrated a significant and negative correlation with diffusive resistance especially under stressed conditions (r = -.64 in 1981). Temperature differential was positively correlated with transpiration (r = .70 in 1980 stressed treatment). Plant height was significantly affected by water level both years while stem weight was affected by water level only in 1980. Soil moisture treatments did not affect leaf area either year and genotypic differences were demonstrated only in 1981. Hybrids produced greater grain yield than their male parents under both water treatments. This was due to greater seed number for hybrids. Seed number was also more stable for hybrids under both moisture levels. Hybrids four and seven had the greatest grain yield in 1980 and 1981, respectively. Harvest index was improved with increased water application due to increased seed number. Hybrid four in 1980 and hybrid seven in 1981 were extremely efficient in water use exhibiting ET ratios of 283 and 378, respectively under high water application. Reduced water application had little affect on the performance of these entries.

Mots clés : Hydrology. ; Sorghum. ; Plant-water relationships. ; Plants — Effect of stress on. ; Plants — Effect of soil moisture on. ; Soil moisture — Arizona.

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