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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Kenya → Antidiabetic activities of ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of pappea capensis, senna spectabilis, maytenus obscura, ocimum americanum and launaea cornuta

Kenyatta University (2014)

Antidiabetic activities of ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of pappea capensis, senna spectabilis, maytenus obscura, ocimum americanum and launaea cornuta

Karau, Geoffrey Muriira

Titre : Antidiabetic activities of ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of pappea capensis, senna spectabilis, maytenus obscura, ocimum americanum and launaea cornuta

Auteur : Karau, Geoffrey Muriira

Université de soutenance  : Kenyatta University

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2014

Résumé
Pappea capensis, Senna spectabilis, Maytenus obscura, Launaea cornuta and Ocimum americanum have been used traditionally in the management of several diseases including diabetes mellitus but their efficacy and safety after long term use is not scientifically evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo hypoglycemic activity and safety of aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of leaves and stem barks from plants in male BALB/c mice. The extracts were orally screened for their hypoglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic mice using a glucometer. The safety of these extracts was studied in mice orally administered with 1g/kg body weight daily for 28 days by monitoring the changes in body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters. Mineral composition of the plant powders were estimated using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence system (EDXRF) ; vitamins were estimated using HPLC system ; while the types and quantities of phytochemicals present were assessed using standard procedures. Individual volatile phytochemicals in the extracts were determined using GC-MS system. Proximate composition of the dry plants parts powers was estimated using standard procedures while the energy content was determined using the Atwater factor. Oral administration : of both the leaf and stem bark ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of P. capensis, S. spectabilis, M. obscura, L. cornuta and O. americanum in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight lowered blood glucose ; of the three tested doses of aqueous leaf and stem bark extracts of P. capensis and aqueous leaves extracts of M. obscura could not significantly alter the blood glucose levels in alloxan induced diabetic male BALB/c mice ; of the aqueous extracts of L. cornuta at 50 and 200 mg/kg body weight dose raised the glucose levels beyond that of the diabetic control mice. Oral administration of aqueous leaves extracts of P. capensis, and O. americanum and ethyl acetate leaves extracts of S. spectabilis at 1 g/kg body weight daily in mice for 28 days significantly reduced the weekly body weight gain. The same oral dose of P. capensis (L and SB), S. spectabilis (L and SB), M. obscura (L and SB), L. cornuta and O. americanum altered the red blood cell count, hemoglobin levels, packed cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, platelets ; white blood cell count and their differential counts ; altered the levels of blood urea nitrogen and the activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase. The plants powders contained phenols, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phylobatannins, cardiac glycosides, sterols, fatty acids and reducing sugars ; vitamins C, E, B1, B3, retinol, β-carotene, lycopene and cryptoxanthin ; minerals selenium, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, manganese, vanadium, molybdenum, cobalt and heavy metals nickel, aluminium, lead and mercury. The observed hypoglycemic activity and/or slight toxicity in the bioactive plants extracts could be associated with the phytonutrients and minerals present in these plants. This study recommends use of safe plants with antidiabetic activity as herbal remedies

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