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Universidad de Chile (2010)

Revisión bibliográfica sobre el potencial de producción de biogás a partir de plantaciones de (Opuntia ficus indica) y otros residuos disponibles en el Norte Chico de Chile

Bedregal Barrios, Camila

Titre : Revisión bibliográfica sobre el potencial de producción de biogás a partir de plantaciones de (Opuntia ficus indica) y otros residuos disponibles en el Norte Chico de Chile

Auteur : Bedregal Barrios, Camila

Université de soutenance : Universidad de Chile

Grade : Ingeniera en Recursos Naturales Renovables 2010

Résumé
Renewable energies have reached importance in the past years, not only on a national scale, but also on a global one, finding new applications for the use of renewable energies. This project investigates about prickly plantations as main source for the production of biogas and their energy potential for northern Chile. Biogas is an energy alternative for the agricultural sector and is obtained by fermentation processes of different wastes produced daily. Besides the generation of biogas it is also possible to obtain a stabilized waste that can be incorporated on the soil, meaning an alternative for the dry and semi dry zones of the northern Chile. Because their soil is poor in organic matter content, therefore, presents deficient chemical, physical and biological properties. This makes difficult the implementation of any type of crops. The prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) adapts easily to the previous conditions, because it is possible to modify it according to the features of the land and the weather. In example, the form of the stem varies depending on the cultural management and the weather conditions. The specie possesses a superficial fleshy root system that facilitates the absorption of water on the surface. Also, the CAM metabolism allows the adaptability to drought and rains, by closing the stomatas during day and night, and opening them early in the morning. Another important feature of this specie is the biomass production, reaching around 30 ton/ha with good cultural management and water availability. For this reason and for the potential to produce biogas it is considered a good alternative for the northern Chile. To define the best biodigestor to use, this will depend on the use and the costs associated. The estimation of biogas production in the northern Chile is 13.406,4 4 m3/kg/d. This result can be improved adding other wastes produced in the area that allows change some parameters relevant for the production of biogas.

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