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Universidad de Chile (2011)

Eficiencia de uso del agua en el matorral árido costero de la Región de Coquimbo a escala foliar y ecosistémica

Jara Torres, Pía M. S.

Titre : Eficiencia de uso del agua en el matorral árido costero de la Región de Coquimbo a escala foliar y ecosistémica

Auteur : Jara Torres, Pía M. S.

Université de soutenance : Universidad de Chile

Grade : Ingeniera en Recursos Naturales Renovables 2011

Résumé
The growing demand of water against the limited availability can be combated by trying to reach a balance between natural offer and efficient use of the resource, with special emphasis on areas where environmental conditions are extreme. In this regard, has become important to compare the water use efficiency (WUE) of shrub species at left and ecosystem scales the Coquimbo region. At the leaf scale, gas exchange was measured for three shrub species : Flourensia thurifera, Gutierrezia resinosa and Acacia saligna, which were divided in two sectors, a forested and a natural. The difference between them is that the natural area doesn’t have Acacia saligna. The data were compared using analysis of variance, in order to determine whether there were significant differences caused by factors such as time of the day, sector and sector. The last two variables were found to be significant, being Flourensia thurifera en sector natural (8,2) > Flourensia thurifera en sector forestado (5,0) > Acacia saligna en sector forestado (4,6) > Gutierrezia resinosa en sector natural (3,7) y > Gutierrezia resinosa en sector forestado (2,1). In terms of water use efficiency at ecosystem level (WUEE) gas exchange was measured in the natural area through Bowen Ratio equipment, analyzing the seasonal variation in function of environmental factors such as : air temperature, soil water content, relative humidity, wind velocity, etc. Soil water content and the air temperature were the determinant of the WUEE obtained. The highest values were on the summer season, when water availability is lower, instead of what happened on winter when the release of CO2 into the atmosphere decreases the efficiency.

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