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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Chili → Extracción y estabilización de betalaínas de tuna púrpura (opuntia ficus-indica) mediante tecnología de membranas y microencapsulación, como colorante alimentario

Universidad de Chile (2013)

Extracción y estabilización de betalaínas de tuna púrpura (opuntia ficus-indica) mediante tecnología de membranas y microencapsulación, como colorante alimentario

Vergara Hinostroza, Cristina del Carmen

Titre : Extracción y estabilización de betalaínas de tuna púrpura (opuntia ficus-indica) mediante tecnología de membranas y microencapsulación, como colorante alimentario

Auteur : Vergara Hinostroza, Cristina del Carmen

Université de soutenance : Universidad de Chile

Grade : Doctor en Nutrición y Alimentos 2013

Résumé
Natural sources of red pigments are scarce, and betanin obtained from beetroot (Beta vulgaris) is commonly used in the food industry. Purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a source of betalains, which could be used as colorant for foods. Usually, the betalains are obtained by solvent extraction and are unstable to environmental factors (light, oxygen, temperature and water) losing its colorant and antioxidant capacity. In this context, membrane and encapsulation technologies appear as tools for obtaining and protecting, respectively, these pigments. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to stabilize a cactus pear betalains extract obtained by membrane technology, and cactus pear pulp, using microencapsulation techniques. Microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF), was used to obtain the purple cactus pear extract, assessing ceramic and polymeric membrane. The MF allowed clarifying the cactus pear pulp, obtaining better results with the ceramic membrane. UF extract corresponded to a clarified solution (without mucilage) with similar betalains content than cactus pear pulp, but with lower sugar content. UF extract and purple cactus pear pulp were encapsulated by spray drying using Capsul (C) and K4484 (K) as encapsulating agents, according to an experimental design (Central Composite Design (CCD) plus axial point) for each microparticles system studied (P-C, P-K, UF-C and UF-K). The inlet air temperature and the (P or UF)/encapsulating agent ratio showed significant effect on the encapsulation efficiency (EE), the betaxanthins and betacyanins recovery (R) and yield. The optimum condition of the drying temperature was dependent on the encapsulating agent, and the (P or UF)/(C or K) ratio by the extract type and encapsulating agent. Systems with pulp (PC and PK) allowed greater amount of extract incorporation, suggesting the mucilage contribution as encapsulating agent. The betalains (betacyanins and betaxanthins) encapsulation efficiency (EE) reached values about 98% for all the systems studied, without significant differences among the microparticle systems, revealing a high interaction betalain-polymer due to electrostatic interactions and/or hydrogen bond. The recovery (R) of betacyanins and betaxanthins was between 68.5 to 77.8 % and 79.2 to 100%, respectively, and over 62% yield. The betaxanthins and betacyanins degradation kinetics of microparticles obtained under optimum conditions during storage at 30, 45 and 60 °C was studied. Betalains followed pseudo-first order degradation kinetics in all temperatures and systems studied. The degradation rate constants of betaxanthinss and betacyanins were significantly higher in P-C system compared with P-K, UF-C and UF-K. No significant difference in the activation energy, enthalpy (ΔH≠) and entropy (ΔS≠) between the microparticles systems studied was observed. A linear relationship was obtained in the graph gráfico (ΔH≠) versus (ΔS≠) (R2=0.995), this compensation effect showed that there is a similar betalains degradation mechanism in all microparticles systems, being hydrolysis the main pathway. A dry mix for soft drinks was formulated with microparticles obtained under optimum conditions of each system studied, and the storage stability was evaluated at 30 °C. The microparticles obtained in this study could be applied as a colorant with antioxidant activity in the food industry for the formulation of instant products such as juices or soups, among others, due to its high stability and solubility in water

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