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Accueil du site → Master → Chili → Efecto de la localidad de cultivo y de la ausencia del clorénquima en las características de los polvos de nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica)

Universidad de Chile (2012)

Efecto de la localidad de cultivo y de la ausencia del clorénquima en las características de los polvos de nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica)

Espinoza Piombo, Karina Andrea

Titre : Efecto de la localidad de cultivo y de la ausencia del clorénquima en las características de los polvos de nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica)

Effect of crop location and the absence of cladode chlorenchyma on the characteristics of nopal powders (Opuntia ficus-indica)

Auteur : Espinoza Piombo, Karina Andrea

Université de soutenance : Universidad de Chile

Grade : Ingeniero Agrónomo Mención Agroindustria 2012

Résumé
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growing area and the exclusion of the epidermis/chlorenchyma (E/C) on some chemical, physical and technological characteristics of nopal powders. Nopal cladodes of 2 to 3 years old from two growth areas : Til-Til (MR) and Las Cardas (IV Region) were used and two treatments of preparation were applied. The first one of them consisted of cactus paddles without previous peeled, while in the second treatment a manual peeled was realized eliminating all the outer layer of cutin, thorns, epidermis and the chlorenchyma of paddles, leaving only the white and inner part called medulla. The results were analysed by ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range test was applied at a 5% level of significance to detect differences among means. Cladodes powders with E/C from Las Cardas obtained the highest ash content (10.04%) and crude fiber (7.57%). The highest yield (1.72%) and intensity of green color (a* entre - 10.09 y -11.54) it was obtained in powders with E/C. As the moisture content in nopal powders, were not found significant differences in the factor E/C. The aw ranged between 0.49 and 0.55 being major for the powders without E/C. The total dietary fiber (TDF) and insoluble fiber (IDF) was higher in cladodes powders with E/C. The FDT content ranged between 54.61% and 63.05% for cladodes powders from Til-Til and Las Cardas respectively ; whereas the soluble dietary fiber was higher in Til-Til’s cladodes powders without E/C (12.63%). The total phenolic content ranged between 8.92 mg EAG/ g d.m. and 12.71 mg EAG/ g d.m. in nopal powders. The highest antioxidant activity was recorded on nopal powder without E/C. The cladodes powders without E/C from Las Cardas, obtained a higher water retention capacity (5.76 g/g), a higher cation exchange capacity (1.15 meq H+/g ) and a lower fat absorption capacity (2.48 g/g). The water adsorption capacity and the apparent density were higher for nopal powders with E/C, while in the swelling capacity no significant differences were found. A sensory evaluation was realized, showing the powders with E/C a high herbaceous aroma and green color.

Présentation

Page publiée le 15 avril 2016, mise à jour le 12 juin 2018