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Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (2008)

Variabilidade espacial no Sistema Aquífero Guarani : controles estratigráficos e estruturais

Soares, Ana Paula

Titre : Variabilidade espacial no Sistema Aquífero Guarani : controles estratigráficos e estruturais

Auteur : Soares, Ana Paula

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul

Grade : Doctorate 2008

Résumé
The functionality of an aquifer system depends on attributes of the reservoir, spe- cially those heterogeneities associated to intrinsic properties of the rock and to structural compartmentation discontinuities. The main objective of the study was to identify and to map the stratigraphic components and structural compartments of the Guarani Aquifer System, located in the Paraná Basin, to verify the effect of their distribution on the aquifer organization and functionality. Variations in the salinity, the discharge and recharge zones were also studied as a contribution to the studies that aim to establish priorities in the use, mapping, monitoring and in the reduction of potentially contami- nant activities. The extensive siliciclastic section, with a maximum thickness of 600 m, was formed by aeolian and fluvial depositional systems of Triassic and Jurassic age and referred to mainly as the Pirambóia and Botucatu (Brazil), Misiones (Paraguay and Argentina) and Taquarembó (Uruguay) formations. Survey of stratigraphic sections throughout the out- crop belt and analysis and interpretation of geophysical profiles of wells drilled for oil in the basin had allowed a new stratigraphic and structural picture of the water-bearing system to be drawn. The structural compartmentation of the aquifer was defined based on the integration of morphostructural maps previously published, traced from interpretation of radar and satellite images, digital terrain models of rise and aeromagnetometric and gravimetric regional maps. A new map of structural lineaments, interpreted from a digital elevation model, had its precision and accuracy evaluated by comparint it to previous maps gener- ated by different authors and methods. The sedimentary succession that form the water-bearing unit is object of different correlations and stratigraphic classifications – with implications in the spatial configura- tion and regional connectivity of the hydrostratigraphic units. The succession is charac- terized by associations of facies whose architectural elements and geometry allow it to be subdivided in units of flow. Three main units of flow were recognized, identified and referred to as genetic facies : dune (DU), interdune (ID) and canals (CH). Secondarily, two other units : flooding plain crevasse (CR), lacustrine and (FF) were identified. These units show different hydraulic conductivities and play, consequently, different roles in the functioning of the aquifer. For the units of flow, it was possible estimate the average hydraulic conductivity on the basis of the selection and average size of its grains and in the mud content of the sediments. In litostratigraphic terms, the Guarani Aquifer System is represented by the forma- tions Santa Maria, restricted to Rio Grande do Sul state, bellow and spatially justaposed to the fluvial-aeolian formations Guará (in western Rio Grande do Sul) and Pirambóia (eastern Rio Grande do Sul, and all the central and north parts of the Paraná Basin). All units are extensively superposed, in some places unconformably, in other places transi- tionally, by the Botucatu Formation, which is characterized by dune deposits of super- arid deserts. Such facies present a great homogeneity, a good porosity and permeability, being the most important hydrostratigraphic unit. In the interpolation of the structural contours and thicknesses of the rocks of the water-bearing unit, the recognized lineaments revealed large tectonic blocks that restrict the flow and the formation of hydrogeologic cells. The sedimentary anisotropy and the structural compartments have been considered in the evaluation of the units of flow and the system and in the calculation of the dynamic potential flow. The obtained potential flow and direction of flow maps allowed the strong structural influence in the preferen- tial areas of recharge and discharge and the controls of the inputs and outputs of the sys- tem to be identified. The spatial distribution of the units shows a hydraulic conductivity zoning with direct effect in the quality and the regional conductivity. As result, it can be concluded that although it consists of an ideally continuous reservoir, the compartmentation and the internal differentiation of the Guarani Aquifer System point to a complexity that seems to exceed the conception of a single system

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