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University of Khartoum (2005)

Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Wadi Abu Soueid Water Spreading Project, Khartoum State, Sudan

Ahmed Hassan Ehimer, Somia

Titre : Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Wadi Abu Soueid Water Spreading Project, Khartoum State, Sudan

Auteur : Ahmed Hassan Ehimer, Somia

Université de soutenance : University of Khartoum

Grade : Master of Science (MS) 2005

Résumé
This study was conducted to assess the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of Wadi Abu Soueid rain water spreading dam which is located in an agro-pastoral rural area 120 kilometers due East of South- East from the city of Khartoum. The Wadi Abu Soueid dam was established in 1997 by Khartoum State Ministry of Agriculture for the purpose of spreading the rain waters of Wadi Abu Soueid (a seasonal water course) to improve rain fed agriculture production and range land utilization in the area. The study was focused on villages where residents are involved in rain fed agriculture and range land use activities. Five villages were randomly selected for purposes of the study, namely Salamat Wad Nile, Al Hidaibab, Seyal Alfaki Saad, Al Ahamda,and Al Nikhaira. The conceptual framework of the study involved a number of variables reflecting respondents characteristics (such as tribal affiliation, age, family size, level of family members education, and occupation) land tenure) and variables reflecting the environmental and socioeconomic conditions in the study area before and after the establishment of the water spreading dam under investigation. Comparative analysis was performed to determine the significance of differences between the pre- and post-dam periods in terms of areas under crops, crop production and productivity, size of livestock herds owned, income from crop and animal production, the density of pasture grasses and trees, security hazards (in terms of fire breakouts, excessive tree cutting, animal thefts), and the rates of temporary annual out migration of residents from communities in the dam area. Primary data for the study were collected through use of personal interviews with respondents aided by a prepared structured questionnaire. Secondary data were collected from various sources, the most important among which were the formal records of the Ministry of Agriculture, Khartoum State. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was employed in data analysis to generate frequency distributions, t-test statistics, and inter-correlations among selected variables. Data analysis revealed the presence of significant differences between the periods before and after the establishment of Wadi Abu Soueid dam in terms of dura (sorghum) productivity, sizes of livestock herds, and thee production and marketing, of milk and live animals. 5 Analysis of data also revealed an improvement in the density of natural pasture and tree cover in the rangelands following the construction of the dam. However, some negative impacts of the water spreading dam were also revealed by the analysis, such as an increase in the density of the crop weeds of Adar and Buda which reduce dura productivity. Also revealed by the study is a significant increase in security problems following the construction of the water spreading dam (such as trespassing on farm and rangeland by nomadic groups from neighboring areas), technical problems stemming from neglect of regular maintenance of the dam, and lack of follow up activities (to the effect that the opportunity to cultivate some potentially productive farm land was lost because of flooding by uncontrolled rain water). The study, therefore, recommended regular maintenance of Wadi Abu Soueid dam and adequate follow up of the pasture and crop land improvement programs of the area, the introduction of improved crop and natural plant varieties, and the intensification of technically coordinated extension programs employing the participatory approach for achieving sustainable development and utilization of natural resources in the area.

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