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Universidade Federal do Ceará (2016)

Mineralization of nutrients and plant growth in soils irrigated with wastewater from oil extraction

Adervan Fernandes Sousa

Titre : Mineralization of nutrients and plant growth in soils irrigated with wastewater from oil extraction

Auteur : Adervan Fernandes Sousa

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal do Ceará

Grade : Doutor em Ecologia e Recursos Naturais. 2016

Résumé
The large volume of water used in agriculture compromises its availability for human consumption. Faced with this problem, it is necessary to evaluate the use of wastewater in agricultural production as an option for the conservation of water resources. Wastewater from oil fields can be a good choice for irrigation, especially in regions of low or high rainfall variability, as in the Brazilian Northeast. However, it is necessary to evaluate its effects on the soil, such as the accumulation of nutrients and decomposition of organic matter, as well as the nutritional aspect and plant growth. The aims of this study were : i) to assess the changes that take place in the soluble salts and soil organic matter fractions, and in the growth of plants of the BRS 321 cultivar of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivated in soil of a sandy texture and irrigated with wastewater obtained from oil extraction and treated by filtration and reverse osmosis ; ii) to assess the nutritional changes in the BRS 321cultivar of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus) irrigated with wastewater from oil extraction, and the effects on biomass and achene production ; and iii) to evaluate the decomposition of plant residue from the BRS 321 cultivar of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in areas irrigated with wastewater from oil extraction. The sunflower was grown for three successive periods in areas irrigated with wastewater from oil extraction treated by filtering (APF) and reverse osmosis (APO), or with groundwater from the Açu aquifer (ACA). At the end of each cycle, pH values were determined, together with electrical conductivity (EC), the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and the levels of Na, Cl, Mg, Ca, K, HCO3- , Ag, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr3+, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, and of C in the humic fractions. The concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na were determined in the roots, shoots and achenes, along with growth and the accumulation of biomass. In addition, the decomposition of shoot residue from the sunflower plants was evaluated. Changes were seen in the chemical properties of the soil, highlighting an increase in salts, which was greater in the areas irrigated with APF ; a rise was also seen in pH irrespective of the type of water used. The rise in soil salinity and alkalinity reduced the growth and accumulation of plant biomass. Moreover, irrigation resulted in nutritional changes in the plants, which were reflected in the growth and production of achenes, and in the decomposition of the plant residue, having positive or negative effects according to the treatment of the wastewater. It was concluded that wastewater from oil extraction used in irrigation affects the chemical properties of the soil as well as the nutritional composition and development of the plants, especially when irrigated with APF. Furthermore, irrigation with wastewater changed the mineralisation of the sunflower plant residue, but not the decomposition of the organic carbon in the humic fractions.

Mots Clés : Semiarido ; agua residual ; Helianthus annuus ; Crescimento de plantas ; Nutricao de plantas ; Decomposicao ; Comunidade microbiana ; Qualidade substrato ; Semi-arid ; Residual water ; Helianthus annuus ; Plant nutrition ; Decomposition ; Microbial community ; Substrate quality

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Page publiée le 13 août 2016, mise à jour le 4 juillet 2017