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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Allemagne → 2016 → Forest ecosystem services governance, supply and demand in Tajikistan

Universität Bayreuth (2016)

Forest ecosystem services governance, supply and demand in Tajikistan

Mislimshoeva, Bunafsha

Titre : Forest ecosystem services governance, supply and demand in Tajikistan.

Auteur : Mislimshoeva, Bunafsha

Université de soutenance : Universität Bayreuth

Grade : Doctoral thesis 2016

Résumé
In the last few decades the worldwide population growth and consequently the in-creasing demand for resources have put enormous pressure on the environment. To such an extent that in technically advanced countries some services of nature are replaced or expanded by anthropogenic inventions. For many services the spatial dimension of supply and demand go beyond a single region, thereby creating in-creased globalized environmental impacts. In other parts of the world, especially rural areas of developing countries, the flow of ecosystem goods and services re-mains local, thus also increasing local environmental impacts. This is especially the case in arid high mountainous areas, where isolation, scarce resources, and harsh climatic conditions additionally make people’s livelihood more challenging. Here, the demand for energy, mainly for heating and cooking, is significantly high. However, the local heterogeneity of energy usage, flow and management remains largely un-known (chapter 3). Against the global and regional backgrounds, this thesis aims at understanding the local energy consumption patterns. Additionally, it focuses on households’ fire-wood consumption and evaluating the factors influencing it. Furthermore, forest firewood supply, demand and governance at the local and national scales were ana-lyzed in the context of developing countries as well as countries in transition. Tajiki-stan was selected as a research area, due to its unique, but at the same time “repre-sentative” history of energy use. The local population currently needs to cope with the energy situation, and so understanding the heterogeneity of energy use in the arid high mountainous areas of the country is of special interest (chapter 5). Here, many factors (biophysical, socio-economic, governance) can potentially influence the amount of energy used. This was analyzed in the first research paper of this thesis, where data was collected through household interviews. The paper concluded that animal dung and firewood count as the main sources of energy in the rural moun-tainous areas of Tajikistan. The amount of consumed firewood was positively influ-enced by elevation, size of a household’s private garden and total hours of heating, while education level and access to a reliable supply of electricity influenced fire-wood consumption negatively. The results of the paper also showed that the main sources of firewood are private gardens, forests, gorges, along the roads and agricul-tural fields (chapter 6.1). While quantification of firewood sources outside of forests remains a challenge for a number of reasons, in the second paper forest firewood supply and demand was analyzed. The results suggest that in most case study areas the budget between forest firewood supply and demand remain positive, but are subject to uncertainties and must be interpreted with caution (chapter 6.2 and 9). Closely related to the second paper, in the third, forest biomass was estimated for the research area with high-resolution RapidEye satellite data. This paper showed that in the semi-arid to arid regions red edge and texture attributes improve the model results for woody biomass estimation (chapter 6.3 and10). The opportunities to inte-grate the results of this study in spatial analysis with forest firewood demand are highlighted in the research outlook (chapter 13). Management of not only firewood, but overall forest governance is an important aspect of sustainable use of these resources. The fourth paper captured a broader context of current pathways of forest governance in Tajikistan and the enhancement of forest ecosystem services (ES). In-depth interviews were conducted with experts at national level. The results indicated that establishment of new institutional networks leads the sector towards good forest governance. However, challenges in creating sound legal frameworks, decision-making transparency and implementation en-forcement remain to be overcome (chapter 6.4 and 11). Though several uncertainties and limitations are attached to this thesis (chapter 12 and 13), it nevertheless contributes new empirical insights to advance under-standing of : i) the energy situation, ii) the role of ES to meet the energy demand, iii) the situation of supply and demand and iv) governance of ES. The results are not only of significance for the high mountainous areas of Tajikistan, but also regions with similar history, socio-economic and climatic conditions, such as former Soviet countries. Further research priorities should be set to further qualitative and quanti-tative empirical and ecological data collection in order to improve understanding of the changes in the availability and usage of ES in people’s livelihood. The changes are likely to become extremer, given a broader context of climate change in vulnera-ble mountainous areas of Central Asia. In this context, many issues remain critical for research and can help lead to decreasing the pressure on the scarce natural re-sources of the region (chapter 13). These include the impact of climate change on land use ; the provision of multiple ES ; adaptation strategies for occurrences of defi-cient ES ; spatial and temporal ES flows and their synergies and trade-offs ; alterna-tive strategies for increasing ES supply and decreasing demand.

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Page publiée le 29 août 2016, mise à jour le 30 décembre 2018