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Iran University of Science and Technology (2013)

Liveable Neighborhood : Architectural Criteria and Guidelines for Improving Liveability in Residential Areas (Iran)

Norouzian Maleki Saeed

Titre : Liveable Neighborhood : Architectural Criteria and Guidelines for Improving Liveability in Residential Areas (Iran)

Auteur : Norouzian Maleki Saeed

Université de soutenance : Iran University of Science and Technology

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2013

Résumé
Nowadays, liveability and vitality are missing in the urban life. Some modern neighbourhoods in Iran don’t create the sense of liveability. Also consideration of quantitative aspects of spatial organization has reduced the quality of the neighbourhood’s public spaces. Thus, need to review and pay special attention to the design of neighbourhood’s public spaces that serving as common gathering spaces are essential in many types of modern housing. Based on the research purposes, the neighbourhood liveability can be evaluated using three categories : (1) built-form factors ; (2) spatial quality factors ; and (3) social and community factors. The research method of the present dissertation is a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches (mixed methods). Four steps are taken for the purpose of this research fulfillment. In the first step, the literature is reviewed and the effective factors of liveability and sociability that are mostly affected by built environment are accordingly recognized. In the second step, after several semi-structured interviews with architects and designers, the Delphi technique is used to identify feasible evaluation criteria and their priority weights. Using experiential and survey methods, this research analyses the data with descriptive and inferential statistics in the case study of three neighbourhoods of Tehran. Three tools have been used to quantify this quality that are : researcher based questionnaire, experts’ questionnaire, Depthmap Software. Residents’ perception has been gathered through multistage cluster sampling of 300 p. The effective factors were extracted and a linear model was chosen. The correlation between the factors was measured and the hypotheses of the research were analyzed. Afterwards the liveability of neighbourhoods analyzed by the residents’ and the experts’ evaluations and then the data were studied by the Depthmap software.
This dissertation points to the important differences in the attributes that influence neighbourhood liveability. In previous investigations, the relative importance of environmental attributes and how they influence neighbourhood liveability had not been determined. Thus, we attempted to define carefully and to assign weights to the attributes in the neighbourhood that impact liveability. The findings of this dissertation show statistically significant differences between the social and community category and the built-form category. In the built-form category, “the proportion and scale of the spaces” was the most important factors to evaluate the liveability of the neighborhood. “The alternative appearance to the facades” is then ranked second, “the provision of mixed-use buildings” third and “the contribution of buildings of different periods” fourth.
In the spatial quality category, the results of the surveys show that the users perceive “amount of green space”, “the presence of water features” and “visibility of public spaces” to be the most important factor that makes up a liveable neigbourhood. As a result, “the sense of hierarchy” is perceived as the least important factor in determining the neighbourhood liveability. The results of the surveys show that users perceive “safety and security” to be the most important factor that makes up a liveable neigbourhood. Another important attributes are “Joint activities opportunities” and “presence of a variety of people in neighborhood public spaces”, respectively. On the other end of the spectrum, “lighting during night-time” and “volume and speed of vehicles” were identified as the two least important attributes by participants.

Mots Clés : Sociability, Social interactions, Liveability, Public spaces, Neighbourhood.

Présentation

Page publiée le 9 septembre 2016, mise à jour le 9 avril 2018