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Iran University of Science and Technology (2016)

Studying and Analyzing the Local Methods Using Wind to Exemplify and Modify the Architecture of Sistan Rural Housing

Abolfazl Heidari

Titre : Studying and Analyzing the Local Methods Using Wind to Exemplify and Modify the Architecture of Sistan Rural Housing

Auteur : Abolfazl Heidari

Université de soutenance : Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST)

Grade : Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) 2016

Résumé
Nowadays, the increased environmental pollutions due to using fossil fuels to provide thermal comfort considered as one of the problems of this field. Referring to the past architecture, it may be understood that supplying natural ventilation used to be achieved with maximum taking benefit from the natural forces (here : the wind). Therefore, it may be concluded that using local methods may in turn solve the issues and problems occurred in the field of new buildings ventilation. Sistan Region’s vernacular architecture is deemed as a valuable reference for the same region’s current rural architecture, developed by taking benefit from local materials and as per certain principles and indicators in proportion to the regional climate and culture. The Capabilities existed in local architectural models available in Sistan rural regions may be a suitable guide to identify the techniques to use wind to establish natural ventilation in regional rural housing. One of the most important applicable models of the same is the method to adapt housing with the common climatic phenomenon of the region, i.e. wind. Sistan region is one of the windiest Iranian regions, and the most redoubtable Iranian wind, namely “Sistan 120-day Wind” lows in this region with the common direction of Northwest-Southeast. This phenomenon has affected the local architecture of the region and the villagers have used this climatic phenomenon in the best possible manner. Whereas the rural population and in turn, level of construction development is higher and growing in the villages of this region in comparison to the urban population, therefore, considering the regional housing is mandatory. While examining Sistan region’s rural local architecture, this dissertation points that formation of regional rural local housing has been initiated from a cell, namely “room” while the local housing has been created through combining these rooms. After that the different and common types of single- and double-rooms in the local housing available in the regional villages formed as a means to comply with the regional natural conditions have been identified and the wind behavior in each of the types has been studied in terms of natural ventilation and eventually, the optimized type has been chosen in terms of natural ventilation. In this study, first of all suing the qualitative study method, the methods to use the wind in local housing have been studied in descriptive-analytical method and relying on the field studied and further wind behavior analysis has been conducted by CFD modeling and choosing the common single- and double-bed types in terms of natural ventilation, by taking benefit from the simulation study method by Gambit 2.4.6 (to make housing geometry and generate meshing) and Ansis fluent 15 (to analyze wind behavior) software. In order to validate the study, at site environmental measurements have been fulfilled using digital anemometer within a 4-month term (between June and September) during the term of 120-day winds, on certain days when the regional common wind speed was between 7 and 11 m/s (totally 51 days). Due to such analyses, the single- and double-bed types had northeast-southwest direction perpendicular to the common regional wind and used all the elements affecting the natural ventilation, such as “Kolak” in the ceiling, reticulated windows and “Sourak” in northwest front wall together with a suitable dispersion on throughout the wall are chosen as the optimized types in local housing and may be used to establish models and modify Sistan rural housing.

Mots Clés : Natural Ventilation, Local Housing, Wind Behavior, Sistan, CFD

Présentation

Page publiée le 8 septembre 2016, mise à jour le 1er août 2017