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Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (2015)

Lâminas de água salina e doses de adubação orgânica na produção de palma Miúda adensada no semiárido

Dantas, Fernanda Daniele Gonçalves

Titre : Lâminas de água salina e doses de adubação orgânica na produção de palma Miúda adensada no semiárido

Auteur : Dantas, Fernanda Daniele Gonçalves

Université de soutenance : Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN)

Grade : Mestradoem Produção Animal

Résumé
Cactus pear is an important forage for livestock in semi-arid region of Brazil, due to its adaptation to climate conditions in this region, high productivity and nutritional value. The yield of this cactus has positively responded to techniques such as planting density, fertilization and cutting managements, however, in Rio Grande do Norte State, only certain areas have favorable climate conditions to the development of this crop. Drip irrigation, with a small amount of water, has proven to be an alternative to the viability of cactus pear cultivation in these areas. The research aimed to evaluate the effects of different levels of saline water and manure organic fertilization on the morphological characteristics and production of fresh and dry matter of the prickly-pear cactus cv. Miúda (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dick) in a dense planting system. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of Terras Secas (EMPARN), Pedro Avelino, latitude 5°31’21" South and longitude 36°23’14" West. The soil was classified as Typical Cambisol Haplicum Carbonate and the water used in irrigation, C4S1T3 (5,25 dS.m-1), with planting spacing of 2.0 x 0.25 m (20,000 plants ha-1). A completely randomized design in a split plot was used, where water levels (0, 7.5, 15.0 and 30.0 mm month-1) with 10 days intervals, were the main plots and organic fertilization (0 , 25 and 50 Mg ha-1 yr-1) the subplots, with four replicates. The measured morphological characteristics were number of cladodes, height and volume of the plant ; length, width, perimeter, thickness, area and cladodes area index, fresh and dry matter production, dry matter content, water use efficiency (WUE) and damage promoted by cochineal pest (Diaspis echinocacti) and soft rot (Erwinia carotovora). There was no influence (P>0.05) of organic fertilization on most variables, particularly in relation to the production of fresh and dry matter. The water levels had a significant influence (P<0.05) on most variables, promoting higher height and volume of the plants, larger and thicker cladodes, and increase on fresh and dry matter production (13.55 Mg DM ha-1 yr-1). The absence of irrigation caused a significant expansion in plant damage caused by the cochineal pest and when irrigated with different water levels there was an increase in damage and stand loss, caused by soft rot, been more intense at the higher water level.

Mots Clés : Cactaceae ; Forragem ; Irrigação ; Nopalea ; Salinidade

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Page publiée le 31 août 2016, mise à jour le 24 juillet 2017