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Accueil du site → Doctorat → Argentine → Aplicación de distintos niveles de estrés hídrico durante el periodo prefloración-floración del olivo (Olea europaea L.) : influencia sobre parámetros agronómicos, bioquímico-fisiológicos y productivos

Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (2012)

Aplicación de distintos niveles de estrés hídrico durante el periodo prefloración-floración del olivo (Olea europaea L.) : influencia sobre parámetros agronómicos, bioquímico-fisiológicos y productivos

Pierantozzi, Pierluigi

Titre : Aplicación de distintos niveles de estrés hídrico durante el periodo prefloración-floración del olivo (Olea europaea L.) : influencia sobre parámetros agronómicos, bioquímico-fisiológicos y productivos

Auteur : Pierantozzi, Pierluigi

Université de soutenance : Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

Grade : Doctor en Ciencias Agropecuarias 2012

Résumé
The aim of this work was to study the influence of water stress during the preflowering - flowering period (middle June – ending October) on agronomic, biochemicalphysiological and productive parameters in the two olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties (Arbequina and Manzanilla) most widespread in Cordoba province. In two consecutive growing seasons, the effect of three deficit irrigation levels, equivalent to 75, 50 and 25% of crop evapotranpiration (T75, T50 and T25, respectively) was analyzed comparing them with a treatment without irrigation (T0) and one without water stress (100% crop evapotranpiration, T100). Deficit irrigation was associated with some leaf-level biochemical-physiological responses, which can be interpreted as adaptation mechanisms of olive to water deficit. Water stress was also associated with increased malondialdehyde concentration, and decreased levels of photosynthetic pigments, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis rate. Water-deficit conditions severely limited shoot growth and floral development. During the first growing season, a delayed onset of full bloom and a shorter flowering period were observed in the least irrigated treatments. The number of fruits / number of flowers ratio was significantly lower in treatments with higher water restriction (T0 and T25) indicating that water stress also causes a decrease in fruit set. Water supply had a marked influence on tree productivity : considering both Arbequina and Manzanilla varieties, the average fruit yield in T100 was 8.5 times higher than that obtained in T0. In relation to oil content and composition, and taking into account the period in which water restriction was applied, the differences among irrigation treatments should be mainly attributed to their influence on crop load and fruit maturation, which affected the rate of oil accumulation, as well as the fatty acid composition and the phenolic content of fruits. Data obtained in this work prove a marked water deficit during the winter-spring period in the olive growing area in central Argentina. The lowest yields obtained under total or severe water deprivation brings out the importance of irrigation during the pre-flowering - flowering period with a view to maximize the olive productivity.

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