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Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (2013)

Análisis de la variabilidad espacial y modelación de los procesos de escorrentía e infiltración del agua en ambientes semiáridos (Monte Patagónico)

Rossi, María Julieta

Titre : Análisis de la variabilidad espacial y modelación de los procesos de escorrentía e infiltración del agua en ambientes semiáridos (Monte Patagónico)

Auteur : Rossi, María Julieta

Université de soutenance : Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

Grade : Doctorado en Ciencias de la Ingeniería 2013

Résumé
Due to the marked sensitivity to changes in semiarid environments, the survey of water resources is particularly important in scientific, technical and socio-political management. However, the lack of information and hydrological data in most of the basins of the semiarid regions of Argentina difficult the analysis of changes in water resources at scales relevant to numerous practical applications (conservation of vegetation, water erosion prevention, flood and water streams control, design of hydraulic civil works, irrigation). This thesis presents a study of characterization of surface runoff flows and infiltration and their relationships and interactions under field conditions considering soil micro topography through close range photogrammetry and geometric analysis of terrain elevation models. The experimental study consists of field and laboratory tests and numerical analysis for the study of the dynamic interaction between surface water and infiltration due to variations of the parameters of infiltration and microtopography. An original hydrological plot system model, which uses innovative criteria for calibration, is presented. By this model hydrological parameters estimates, required for spatially distributed simulation of watershed hydrology and irrigation events pre-emergence and / or pre-planting in the semiarid Patagonian Monte, were obtained. An original system of analysis and surface irrigation efficiency prediction is presented to design automated scheduling irrigation preemergence and / or pre-seeding events in semi-arid environments. It was determined that the system presented is a valuable tool in the management of irrigation to maximize the efficiency of irrigation application, efficiency with respect to irrigation turn and the uniformity coefficient of the distribution of the depth of water in the soil at the end of the irrigation turn. The system of field data collection and hydrological model may be applicable to other semi-arid environments to provide information to farmers, agricultural and environmental scientists, engineers, economists, consultants and government decision makers.

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Page publiée le 22 août 2016, mise à jour le 3 juillet 2017