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Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) 2010

Soil and Crop Responses to water Stress and Irrigation with Different Water Qualities

Ali Abdullah Marouf Ghanim

Titre : Soil and Crop Responses to water Stress and Irrigation with Different Water Qualities

Auteur : Ali Abdullah Marouf Ghanim

Université de soutenance : Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST)

Grade : Master of science (MS) 2010

Présentation
Water is a vital resource but a severely limited one in the Middle East countries. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation with different water qualities on soil fertility and tomato crop yield, and water and nutrient balance under full and deficit soil moisture conditions. The following two factors were included in the experiment : (1) Water quality in the main plot (two qualities differ mainly in the EC level) that are, Potable water (P) and Treated wastewater (T) and (2) Two irrigation scheduling associated with adequate/full (F) and stress/deficit (D) soil moisture condition in the subplot. Overall, the following treatments combinations were included in each replication and investigated in a randomized complete block design with four replication : i) PW*FI (Full irrigation with Potable water) ; ii) PW*DI (Deficit irrigation with Potable water) ; iii) TWW*FI (Full irrigation with Treated wastewater) and iv) TWW*DI (Deficit irrigation with Treated wastewater). After soil preparation, a drip irrigation system was installed and tomato seedlings were planted in rows spaced at 125 cm with 40 cm spacing between plants along row. Irrigation was applied to replenish 80% of the Class A pan evaporation once a week for the deficit irrigation and twice a week for the full irrigation. The fertilizers, was injected into the IW with an injection pump (1:100 dilution factor, Dosatron). Two injectors were used : one for fertigation of the treated wastewater and the second for the potable water. Soil physical and chemical properties of the experimental plots were measured at the beginning of the first growing season. Soil access tubes were inserted into the soil depth of 100 cm in three replications for soil moisture monitored using Neutron Probe. Access tubes for Neutron probe reading were mounted in the middle of the second row of each plot in three replications. The readings was taken before and after each irrigation or rainfall to determine the water consumption, volumetric water content and water use efficiency was calculated for each treatments. Four composite soil samples were taken from the site before planting. At the end of the experiment, similarly soil samples were taken from each plot. Soil samples were analyzed for physical and chemical properties. Above ground biomass (shoot) plant samples (from two whole plants from each plot) were collected at two times (flowering, and harvest). Fruit samples were collected from the middle two rows and the yield was determined. Shoot plant samples were oven dried at 70 oC and weighed to get the shoot dry matter for each sample. Samples were ground to pass 2 mm sieve and stored for tissue analysis. Plant samples then were analyzed for nutrients. Results showed that full irrigation with potable water and full irrigation with treated wastewater plants imposed higher tomatoes yield. Treated wastewater irrigation showed higher dry weight in the two stages (Flowering and End-season). Treated wastewater irrigation imposed higher macronutrients uptake by plants in the two stages. Full irrigation imposed higher micronutrients uptake by plants in the two stages. Lower soil pH showed when treated wastewater used in the surface soil. Treated wastewater irrigation increased soil EC in all soil depths. Treated wastewater irrigation showed higher soil phosphorus and soil potassium in surface soil. No significant effects of treatments were observed on soil nitrogen and soil micronutrients.

Présentation

Page publiée le 7 novembre 2016, mise à jour le 22 mars 2019