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Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (2014)

Utilización de opuntias en la alimentación de animales domésticos

Méndez Llorente, Fabiola

Titre : Utilización de opuntias en la alimentación de animales domésticos

Auteur : Méndez Llorente, Fabiola

Université de soutenance : Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León

Grade : Doctor en Ciencias con acentuación en Alimentos UANL, 2014

With the aim to evaluate the use Opuntias as a food resource for livestock, three feeding trials were conducted. In the first, the pH and in situ degradability of dry matter (DDM) of the Opuntias : ficus indica (OFI), leucotrichia (OL), streptacantha (OS) and O. robusta (OR) mixed with 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8% of urea and ensiled for different periods. In the second trial, performance and digestive characteristics of fattening lambs fed diets with 0, 10, 20, 30 or 40% of OL on DM basis were evaluated. In the third trial, swine were used to evaluate performance, behavior, carcass and meat characteristics when 0, 5, 10 or 15% of OR were added in their diets. The addition of urea improved the nutritional value of silage when urea was add a maximum of 2% to the silage of OS, 4% to the silage of OFi and OR, OL ; moreover, DDM was affected by specie evaluated and urea level, but not by duration of silage period. In lambs, the average daily gain (ADG) were different across diets (329, 227, 212, 185 y 253 g d-1, for 0, 10, 20, 30 y 40% of OL respectively) ; the feed efficiency was higher in the 20% diet (5.2) followed by 30% (4.5), 10% (4.3), 40% (4.1) and 0% (4.1), the carcass dressing were higher as OL were increased. In pigs, the ADG was higher on the 0, 5 and 10% treatments (668, 650 y 623 g d-1), compared with 15% de OR (586 g d-1), the animals fed OR were lying (70 vs. 72.6%) and eating (78 vs. 71%) longer, and fought less (2.6 vs. 16.9%), had less dorsal and mesenteric fat and more rib eye area than the control group. The urea addition enhanced the nutritional quality of Opuntias silage, the inclusion of Opuntias in fattening lambs and pigs sustain performance and reduce dorsal fat, thereby is an alternative where these resources are available


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