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Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (2013)

Composición nutrimental de cuatro especies forrajeras xerófitas del Noreste de Nuevo León, México

Domínguez Gómez, Tilo Gustavo

Titre : Composición nutrimental de cuatro especies forrajeras xerófitas del Noreste de Nuevo León, México

Auteur : Domínguez Gómez, Tilo Gustavo

Université de soutenance : Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León

Grade : Doctor en Ciencias con Especialidad en Manejo de Recursos Naturales UANL, 2013.

Résumé
The Tamaulipan thornscrub is composed of almost 60 woody species, many of them are important in the forest and silvopastoral productions (timber, studs, wood and forage). Although several studies of biological, ecological and floristic topics have been developed in Mexico on different vegetation types, there is a little information about the nutritional and chemical content of native species. The objective of this research was to know for a year of study, the foliar content of Calcium (Ca), Potassium (K), Magnessium (Mg), Nitrogen (N), Sodium (Na), Phosphorous (P), Cooper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), and Zinc (Zn), Organic Matter (OM), Neutral Detergen Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL), Hemicellulose (HCL), Cellulose (CL), Crude Protein (CP), Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD), Metabolizable Energy (ME), Digestible Energy (ED) and Indigestible Neutral Detergent Fiber (INDF). The four shrub species were : Acacia amentacea DC., Parkinsonia texana (A. Gray) S. Watson var. macra (I.M. Johnst.) Isely, Forestiera angustifolia Torr. and Celtis pallida Torr. In order to achieve the objectives, twelve samples of leaves were collected from January to December of 2009 in three counties of Nuevo Leon state, Mexico (China, Linares and Los Ramones). The nutrient content and chemical composition were statistically analyzed using a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement where the factors are sites (3), sampling (12 months) and plant species (4). The nutrient content and chemical composition was statitistically different (P<0.001) between sites, months of sampling and species as well as double and triple interactions. In general, the species from Los Ramones site presented the highest macro nutrient content (Ca, K, Mg, Na and P) follows by China and Linares. The specie with highest content of macro nutrients was C. pallida to the three study sites while to micro-nutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) the order in content was : China>Los Ramones>Linares. The specie with the highest content of micro-nutrients was P. texana to Linares and Los Ramones sites while C. pallida to China site. In general the plants of Linares site presented the highest content of Chemical composition (NDF, ADF, ADL, HCL, CL, CP, DMD, ME, DE and INDF) followed by China and Los Ramones. The differences in nutrient content as in chemical content between the studied species could be influenced by the particular needs of each specie, the soil type and climatic conditions in each study site. The nutrient content and the chemical composition in the foliar tissue indicate that generally the studied species meet the nutritional requirements of range ruminants, consequently they present a potential as good forage to be incorporated in the extensive systems. Aditionally, the structural diversity of the present vegetal species in the sites of study was characterized during the dry and wet seasons of the one year.The total number of individuals registered in the three study sites during the dry and wet seasons were 1,251 individuals and 2,457 individuals, respectively. Floristically the dominant families were Fabaceae and Cactaceae. The Shannon Wiener index showed significative difference to the combination site*sampling season, while the Jaccard Index showed the highest similarity in Linares site and the lowest in China site. Average coverage to the three sampling sites was 1,061 m2 in the dry season and 1, 847 m2 in the wet season.

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