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Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (2012)

Calidad del agua de pozos en sistemas de producción pecuaria de tres regiones geomorfológicas del Estado de Nuevo León

García Juárez, Alfonso

Titre : Calidad del agua de pozos en sistemas de producción pecuaria de tres regiones geomorfológicas del Estado de Nuevo León.

Auteur : García Juárez, Alfonso

Université de soutenance : Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León

Grade : Maestría en Ciencia Animal UANL, 2012.

Water is an essential component for life, covering 70% of the earth, of which only 0.65% is drinkable, 2.05% is frozen, and the majority (97.3%) is in the oceans. In the body, water has vital functions such being a vehicle for digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients at the cellular level, and is needed for body temperature regulation. Water requirements vary depending on factors such as animal species and physiological state, environment, diet and production level. Low quality water can reduce feed intake and animal production, cause nutrient deficiencies, and negatively affect health and reproduction. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of water of farm wells of three geomorphological regions of the state of Nuevo León, identified as Western Sierra Madre (SMO), Mountain Chains and Hills (SC) and, Plains of the Tertiary Layers (PCT). The state of Nuevo Leon is located in the semiarid region of northeast Mexico. The height above sea level varies for these regions : SMO, from 550 to 2500 m ; SC, from 200 to 550 m ; and PCT, from 50 to 250 m. Two hundred and eight water well samples were collected from farms of 37 municipalities, of these three regions, and analyzed to determine its quality. Physical chemical analysis included pH, hardness, total dissolved solids (SDT) content, mineral concentrations (cations, anions, trace minerals) and nitrates. Considering the concentration of total dissolved solids, water quality was better (P < 0.001) for wells from the SMO region (1516 ppm), followed by the SC region (2768 ppm), and the worst waters were for the PCT region (9037 ppm). As the concentration of total dissolved solids increased, water pH increased (P < 0.001), being 7.8 for PCT, 7.2 for SC and 6.9 for SMO. The water in all three regions may be classified as moderately hard (69 to 81 mg/L magnesium and calcium). Hardness of the water is notnecessarily correlated with salinity. The presence of sulfur in water is common in the state of Nuevo León, with > 167 ppm sulfur in 35% of the samples in SMO region, 31% in SC region and 59% in PCT region. A high level of sulfates in water can cause a copper deficiency, or polioencefalomalacia, a nervous ailment of cattle that is accompanied by blindness especially if cattle consume high dietary levels of sulfur. Iron concentrations corresponding to regions SMO, SC and PCT was 0.07, 0.29 and 0.50 ppm, whereas the manganese concentration was 0.29, 0.08 and 0.22 ppm, respectively. High water iron concentrations (>0.30 ppm) can reduce copper absorption and reduce dry matter intake of animals. In conclusion, water from regions SMO and SC, are adequate for animal consumption, although it is important to consider its mineral concentrations in order to adequately formulate diets and supplements for farm animals. In contrast, waters from region PCT has a high salinity, with an excessive concentration (>7000 ppm) of total dissolved solids, primarily sodium, chlorine and sulfur, not being adequate for intensive animal production.


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