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Université Polytechnique de Bobo-Dioulasso (UPB) 2008

Effets des techniques de restauration et d’exploitation des pâturages naturels sahéliens sur la dynamique de la production fourragère

Kiema, Andre

Titre : Effets des techniques de restauration et d’exploitation des pâturages naturels sahéliens sur la dynamique de la production fourragère

Auteur : Kiema, Andre

Université de soutenance : Université Polytechnique de Bobo-Dioulasso (UPB)


This work took place in the Sahel region of Burkina in order to set up some strategies of production improvement to set up strategies of exploitation and efficient management of fodder resources for a continued animal production and a best protection of cattle – breeder’s revenues. The inquiry method consisted in study : (i) three sites the effectiveness of the adjustment processes up on the dynamic of the fodder production, the flora composition and the quality of soils nutrients and the vegetation, (ii) the impact of pasture and moving with fertilisation or not up on the dynamic and the quality of fodder, (iii) the strategies of valorisation fodder resources in animal production through the uses of animals fatten technie.
The researches work results show that the adjustments improve the recovery of the from 11,3% to 58% the growth of the fodder production was 1,6 more on the plot scored compared with the witness, 6,4 more on the sub soil plotting during the periods of studies. On the flora plan, we noticed an improvement of the species numbers compared with the witness expressing the effect trained by all the types’ adjustment. The growing species are made of for the main part of : Cassia obtusifolia, Panicum laetum, Zornia glochidiata, Acacia raddiana, etc. That which have diminishes is above all : Schoenefeldia gracilis, Aristida adscensionis, Brachiaria distichophylla, etc.
In the case of experiments, some attempts on the reap and the pasture before the period of fructification, the dynamic of the production of the biomass materialised itself by a reduction in high de – 34,8% and – 33,7%. Concerning the absolute halt, the evolution was characterized by a growth of the production of + 27,9% whereas concerning the harvest after the fructification and pasture in any season, the variations were respectively of minus 1,4% and minus 17,4%. This dynamic specifically is characterized by a strong development of the inside grain stalks (Cassia obtusifolia) above all on the pastured plots in any season to the determinant of the gramineae where the represent nearly 20% or 60% of the overall productions. The works of the research of the harvest in addition the fertilization about the vegetation dynamic were too interesting for the production and the fodders quality. But the results of the attempts show that in the domains of production and exploitation of the fodders, the producers must take into account the economical factors of profitability in addition to the duration of the fodder resources.
The partial substitution of local fodders (coming from bean the close Cassia obtusifolia, the close of Piliostigma reticulatum and the close of Acacia raddiana) by food coming from farm (animal food made of cotton) produced an improvement of animal productions and their profitability). The zootechnie efficiency in addition to the low costs of substitution food helped to point out an interesting profitability for some types of ration highlighting these fodder resources. It has effectively been show that the experiments with the Cassia obtusifolia, the addition expensive on the direct ones were from 6985,7 to 8269,0 FCFA per animal made fatten for the best substitution rations and 2633,6 FCFA for the witness ration. In the domain of the use of ligneous fodders (clove of Piliostigma reticulatum and Acacia raddiana) and the remaining of bean, the tested rations helped to earn per animal sold 6970,2 to 8798,5 FCFA against 5970,4 for animal witness.
In short, the different improvement techniques, the natural pastures management ways as well as the valorisation of some local fodder resources help to show the diversity of possibilities of improvement of cattle breeding in the Sahel region of Burkina. But what is useful for the development, the politics and the research is mainly the creation of some conditions of their valorisation as regard to the feeble purchase power of the populations where the most are small producers with week income level.

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Page publiée le 2 octobre 2016, mise à jour le 3 juillet 2017